Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a sudden decrease in kidney function. In the early period, the highest percentage of AKI occurs among newborns hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units, especially premature neonates. The prognosis of AKI depends on the type and severity of the cause of an injury, the accuracy and the time of diagnosis and treatment. The concentration of serum creatinine is still the main diagnostic test, although it changes in the course of AKI later than glomerular filtration rate GFR. In addition, the reliability of the determination of creatinine level is limited because it depends on many factors. New studies have presented other, more useful laboratory markers of renal function that can be measured in serum and/or in urine.
Objective: The aim of the work was to present the latest data about tubular and glomerular biomarkers of acute kidney injury in newborns.
Method: We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature by using focused review topics. According to conceptual framework, the main idea of research literature was summarized and presented.
Results: The concentrations of some novel biomarkers are higher in serum and/or urine of term and preterm newborns with AKI, especially in the course of perinatal asphyxia.
Conclusion: In this systematic review of the literature, we have highlighted the usefulness of biomarkers in predicting tubular and/or glomerular injury in newborns. However, novel biomarkers need to prove their clinical applicability, accuracy, and cost effectiveness prior to the implementation into clinical practice.