Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation in the presence of organic and organometallic nucleophiles
serving as a powerful tool for the conversion of aryl/alkenyl halides or halide equivalents to
carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acid derivatives. To circumvent the difficulties in product separation
and recovery and reuse of the catalysts, associated with homogeneous reactions, supporting counterparts
of the homogeneous palladium catalysts were developed. The review intends to summarize the
huge development that has been witnessed in recent years in the field of heterogeneous carbonylation.
A great plethora of supports, organic modifiers on solid surfaces stabilizing metal particles, transition
metal precursors, as well as alternative sources for CO was investigated. In most cases, careful optimization
of reaction conditions was carried out. Besides simple model reactions, the synthesis of carbonyl
compounds and carboxylic acid derivatives from substrates with different functionalities was performed.
In some cases, causes of palladium leaching were clarified with detailed investigations. The
advantages of immobilized catalysts were shown by several examples. The possibility of catalystrecycling
was proved besides proving that metal contamination of the products could often be kept below
the detection limit. At the same time, detailed investigations should be carried out to gain a better
insight into the real nature of these processes.
Keywords: Immobilization, supported catalyst, palladium complexes, palladium nanoparticles, catalyst recycling, palladium leaching
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport