Background: Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are of
major concern for hospitalized patients.
Methods: We evaluated antibiotic and antiseptic resistance of A. baumannii (n = 29)
and P. aeruginosa (n = 37) isolates recovered from 66 intensive care unit (ICU) patients
and determined the prevalence of qacE, qacEΔ1, and integrons in these clinical isolates.
Antibiotic and antiseptic susceptibility testing was performed via Kirby Bauer disk
diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. The resistance genes and
integrons were detected by PCR. A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa ICU isolates showed
100% and 70.3% antibiotic multiple drug resistance patterns, respectively.
Results: The isolates also revealed high levels of resistance (MIC ≥ 16 µg/ml) against
antiseptics commonly used in Egyptian hospitals (Benzalkonium, Benzethonium, and
Chlorhexidine). The qacEΔ1 gene showed higher levels of prevalence in both A.
baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates (93.5% and 78%, respectively) as compared to
that of qacE gene (52.0% and 33.0%, respectively). The intI1 was more prevalent
among A. baumannii isolates (65.5%) compared to P. aeruginosa isolates (37.8%). P.
aeruginosa resistance genotypes were significantly associated with antibiotic and
antiseptic resistance patterns. A. baumannii resistance genotypes were associated with
Conclusion: The excessive usage of antiseptics may escalate bacterial resistance,
especially with high prevalence of intI1 integron in these pathogens.