Sequence duplication is nowadays recognized as an important mechanism that underlies the evolution of eukaryote genomes, being indeed one of the most powerful strategies for the generation of adaptive diversity by modulating transcriptional activity. The evolutionary novelties simultaneously associated with sequence duplication and differential gene expression can be collectively referred to as duplication-mediated transcriptional regulation. In the last years, evidence has emerged supporting the idea that sequence duplication and functionalization represent important evolutionary strategies acting at genome level, and both coding and non-coding sequences have been found to be targets of such events. Moreover, it has been proposed that deleterious effects of sequence duplication might be potentially silenced by endogenous cell machinery (i.e., RNA interference, epigenetic repressive marks, etc). Along these lines our aim is to highlight the role of sequence duplication on transcriptional activity and the importance of both in genome evolution.
Keywords: sequence duplication, transcriptional regulation, molecular diversity, gene duplication, evolutionary novelty, transposable elements, genome evolution
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