Background: Lung is a late response and radiosensitive organ. Studies have shown that exposure of the lung to acute and high doses of radiation following inhalation of radioactive agents or an accidental radiological event may lead to pneumonitis and fibrosis, which are associated with a risk of death. So far, some agents have been studied for mitigation of pneumonitis and fibrosis following exposure of murine lung tissues to ionizing radiation. In this study, we aimed to detect the possible mitigatory effect of alpha-lipoic acid, resveratrol and their combination on mice pneumonitis and fibrosis markers following irradiation.
Materials and methods: 25 mice were divided into 5 groups: control, radiation; radiation plus alpha-lipoic acid; radiation plus resveratrol; and radiation plus both resveratrol and alpha-lipoic acid. Mice chest region were irradiated with 18 Gy using a cobalt-60 gamma rays source. Treatments started 24 h after irradiation and continued for two weeks. After 100 days, all mice were sacrificed and their lung tissues removed for histopathological evaluation.
Results: Pathological study showed that exposure to radiation led to severe pneumonitis and moderate fibrosis after 100 days. Both resveratrol and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as their combination could mitigate pneumonitis and fibrosis markers. Although, resveratrol could not mitigate infiltration of most inflammatory cells as well as inflammation and vascular damage, alpha-lipoic acid and its combination were able to mitigate most damage markers.
Conclusion: Alpha-lipoic acid and its combination with resveratrol were able to mitigate fibrosis and pneumonitis markers in mice lung tissues following lung irradiation. Although resveratrol has protective effect on some markers, it has weaker effect for mitigating lung injury. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of resveratrol and alpha-lipoic acid has a potent mitigatory effect compared to the single forms of these agents.