Amruthapala (Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph and V. Chandras.) Venter): A Comprehensive Review on Diversity, Therapeutic Uses, and Valorization of Bioactive Constituents

Author(s): Sonali Mishra, Nupur Srivastava, Velusamy Sundaresan, Karuna Shanker*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 20 , Issue 5 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph and V. Chandras.) Venter is used primarily for nutrition besides its therapeutic values. Traditional preparations/formulations from its tuber are used as a vitalizer and blood purifier drink. The folklore medicinal uses cover inflammation, cough, wound healing, antipyretic, and digestive system management. A comprehensive review of the current understanding of the plant is required due to emerging concerns over its safety and efficacy.

Objective: The systematic collection of the authentic information from different sources with the critical discussion is summarised in order to address various issues related to botanical identity, therapeutic medicine, nutritional usage, phytochemical, and pharmacological potentials of the D. arayalpathra. Current use of traditional systems of medicine can be used to expand future research opportunities.

Materials and Methods: Available scripted information was collected manually, from peered review research papers and international databases viz. Science Direct, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Scopus, etc. The unpublished resources which were not available in database were collected through the classical books of ‘Ayurveda’ and ‘Siddha’ published in regional languages. The information from books, Ph.D. and MSc dissertations, conference papers and government reports were also collected. We thoroughly screened the scripted information of classical books, titles, abstracts, reports, and full-texts of the journals to establish the reliability of the content.

Results: Tuber bearing vanilla like signature flavor is due to the presence of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB). Among five other species, Decalepis arayalpathra (DA) has come under the ‘critically endangered’ category, due to over-exploitation for traditional, therapeutic and cool drink use. The experimental studies proved that it possesses gastro-protective, anti-tumor, and antiinflammatory activities. Some efforts were also made to develop better therapeutics by logical modifications in 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde, which is a major secondary metabolite of D. arayalpathra. ‘Amruthapala’ offers the enormous opportunity to develop herbal drink with health benefits like gastro-protective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

Conclusion: The plant has the potential to generate the investigational new lead (IND) based on its major secondary metabolite i.e. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde. The present mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on Decalepis arayalpathra, covering its phytochemical diversity, biological potentials, strategies for its conservation, and intellectual property rights (IPR) status.

Chemical Compounds: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (Pubchem CID: 69600), α-amyrin acetate (Pubchem CID: 293754), Magnificol (Pubchem CID: 44575983), β-sitosterol (Pubchem CID: 222284), 3-hydroxy-p-anisaldehyde (Pubchem CID: 12127), Naringenin (Pubchem CID: 932), Kaempferol (Pubchem CID: 5280863), Aromadendrin (Pubchem CID: 122850), 3-methoxy-1,2-cyclopentanedione (Pubchem CID: 61209), p-anisaldehyde (Pubchem CID: 31244), Menthyl acetate (Pubchem CID: 27867), Benzaldehyde (Pubchem CID: 240), p-cymene (Pubchem CID: 7463), Salicylaldehyde (Pubchem CID: 6998), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (Pubchem CID: 6430754), α -amyrin (Pubchem CID: 225688), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (Pubchem CID: 12127).

Keywords: Flavoured drink, functional potential, endangered species, Indian tribes, therapeutic action.

Venter, H.J.; Verhoeven, R.L. A tribal classification of the periplocoideae (apocynaceae). Taxon, 1997, 46, 705-720.
Kapai, V.Y.; Kapoor, P.; Rao, I.U. In-vitro propagation for conservation of rare and threatened plants of India-A Review. Int. J. Biologic. Technol., 2010, 1(2), 1-14.
Verhoeven, R.L.; Venter, H.J. Pollinium structure in periplocoideae (apocynaceae). Grana, 1998, 37(1), 1-14.
Ionta, G.M. Phylogeny reconstruction of periplocoideae (apocynaceae) based on morphological and molecular characters and a taxonomic revision of Decalepis. The Ph.D. thesis, University of Florida.. 2009.
Sharma, S.; Shahzad, A. An overview on decalepis: A genus of woody medicinal climbers. J. Plant Sci. Res., 2014, 1(1), 104.
Chacko, S.; Sethuraman, M.G.; George, V. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Janakia arayalpatra Joseph et Chandrasekharan. Herba Pol., 2000, 46(4), 213-219.
chacko, S Phytochemical investigation of some rare tropical medicinal plants. Gandhiram rural institute-deemed university, 2000.
Verma, R.S.; Mishra, P.; Kumar, A.; Chauhan, A.; Padalia, R.C.; Sundaresan, V. Chemical composition of root aroma of Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph and V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethnomedicinal plant from Western Ghats, India. Nat. Prod. Res., 2014, 28(15), 1202-1205.
Rajashekar, Y.; Shivanandappa, T. A novel natural insecticide molecule for grain protection. Julius-Kühn-Arch., 2010, 425, 913-917.
Kamireddy, K.; Matam, P.; Priyanka, P.S.; Parvatam, G. Biochemical characterization of a key step involved in 2H4MB production in Decalepis hamiltonii. J. Plant Physiol., 2017, 214, 74-80.
Shine, V.J.; Shyamal, S.; Latha, P.G.; Rajasekharan, S. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of Decalepis arayalpathra. Pharm. Biol., 2007, 45(3), 210-216.
Zishan, A.; Anwar, S.; Shiwali, S. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity, HPLC and GC-MS analysis along with chemoprofiling of Decalepis arayalpathra: A critically endangered plant of Western Ghats, India. Rendiconti Lincei, 2017, 28(4), 711-720.
Srivastava, A.; Harish, S.R.; Shivanandappa, T. Antioxidant activity of the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn.). Food Sci. Technol., 2006, 39(10), 1059-1065.
Mohana, D.C.; Raveesha, K.A.; Lokanath Rai, K.M. Herbal remedies for the management of seed-borne fungal pathogens by an edible plant Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn). Archiv. Phytopathol. Plant Protection,, 2008, 41(1), 38-49.
Thangadurai, D.; Anitha, S.; Pullaiah, T.; Reddy, P.N.; Ramachandraiah, O.S. Essential oil constituents and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Decalepis hamiltonii roots against foodborne pathogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50(11), 3147-3149.
Lakshman, K.; Yoganarasimhan, S.N.; Shivaprasad, H.N.; Jaiprakash, B.; Mohan, S. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Decalepis hamiltonii root extract. Pharm. Biol., 2006, 44(2), 127-129.
Zarei, M.; Shivanandappa, T. Amelioration of cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity by the root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2013, 57, 179-184.
Naik, Y.; Jayaram, S.; Nayaka, M.H.; Dharmesh, S.M. Gastroprotective effect of swallow root (Decalepis hamiltonii) extract: Possible involvement of H+-K+-ATPase inhibition and antioxidative mechanism. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 112(1), 173-179.
Ashalatha, K.; Venkateswarlu, Y.; Priya, A.M.; Lalitha, P.; Krishnaveni, M.; Jayachandran, S. Anti-inflammatory potential of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight and Arn.) as evidenced by down regulation of pro inflammatory cytokines-TNF-α and IL-2. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2010, 130(1), 167-170.
Ambavade, S.D.; Mhetre, N.A.; Muthal, A.P.; Bodhankar, S.L. Anxiolytic activity of root extracts of Decalepis Hamiltonii WA in mice. Pharmacol. Online, 2008, 3, 306-315.
Srikanta, B.M.; Nayaka, M.A.H.; Dharmesh, S.M. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and its cytotoxicity by 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzaldehyde of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn); a new functional attribute. Biochimie, 2011, 93(4), 678-688.
George, J.; Ravishankar, G.A.; Pereira, J.; Divakar, S. Bioinsecticide from swallowroot (Decalepis hamiltonii) Wight & Arn protects food grains against insect infestation. Curr. Sci., 1999, 77(4), 501-502.
Naveen, S.; Policegoudra, R.S.; Aradhya, S.M.; Rao, L.J.; Farhath, K. Radical scavenging activity of Decalpoline, a novel compound characterized from Decalepis hamiltonii. Chem. Nat. Compd., 2012, 48(2), 225-230.
Unnikrishnan, P. The existing populations are inprotected forests, except one location Kuttamala; it islocated in a revenue land of Amboori village; University of Amsterdam: The Netherlands, 2000.
Selvaraj, C. A study on socio-economic conditions of Kani tribes in Kanyakumari district; Manomaniam Sundaranar University, 2015.
Xavier, T.F.; Kannan, M.; Lija, L.; Auxillia, A.; Rose, A.K.F. Ethnobotanical study of Kani tribes in Thoduhills of Kerala, South India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 152(1), 78-90.
Pushpagadan, P.; Rajasekharan, A.; Ratheeshkumar, P.K.; Jawahar, C.R.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Nair, C.P.; Amma, L.; Aicrpe, A.B. ‘Amrithapala’ (Janakia arayalpatra, Joseph & Chandrasekharan), a new drug from the Kani tribe of Kerala. Anc. Sci. Life, 1990, 9(4), 212.
Gangaprasad, A.; Decruse, S.W.; Seeni, S.; Nair, G.M. Micropropagation and ecorestoration of Decalepis arayalpathra (Joseph & Chandra.) Venter- An endemic and endangered ethnomedicinal plant of Western Ghats. Indian J. Biotechnol., 2005, 4(2), 265-270.
Sudha, C.G.; Krishnan, P.N.; Pushpangadan, P.; Seeni, S. In vitro propagation of Decalepis arayalpathra, a critically endangered ethnomedicinal plant. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant, 2005, 41(5), 648-654.
Sudha, C.G.; Seeni, S. Establishment and analysis of fast-growing normal root culture of Decalepis arayalpathra, a rare endemic medicinal plant. Curr. Sci., 2001, 81(4), 371-374.
Pushpagadan, P.; Rajasekharan, A.; Ratheeshkumar, P.K.; Jawahar, C.R.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Nair, C.P.; Amma, L.S.; Bhatt Aicrpe, A.V. ‘Amrithapala’ (Janakia arayalpatra, Joseph & Chandrasekharan), a new drug from the kani tribe of Kerala. Anc. Sci. Life, 1990, 4(9), 212-214.
Naveen, S.; Khanum, F. Amelioration of antioxidant status of Decalepis root extract in HCH enduced toxicity. Universal. J. Pharm. , 2013, 2(3), 83-88.
Verma, S.K.; Sarkar, M.K. Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India. Nat. Prod. Res., 2015, 29(5), 394-395.
Nayar, R.C.; Mary, Z.; Yoganarasimhan, S.N. Pharmacognostical studies on the root of Decalepis hamilonii Wt. and Arn., and comparison with Hemidesmus indicus (L.); Indian Academy of Sciences Section B, 1978, pp. 37-48.
Bhaludra, C.S. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an endangered medicinal plant: Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2014, 24(1), 268-278.
Rathi, N.; Harwalkar, K.; Jayashree, V.; Sharma, A.; Rao, N.N. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, an astounding food flavoring metabolite: A review. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 2017, 10(10), 105-110.
Mohana, D.C. Investigations on utilization of antimicrobials of piant origin for management of pathogenic microbes; University of Mysore, 2006.
Seeni, S. In Ex situ conservation and productization of native plants, National Conference on Forest Biodiversity Resources: Exploitation Conservation & Management, Madurai Kamaraj University: Madurai, Madurai Kamaraj University: Madurai, 2006, 91-96.
Nayar, M.P. Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan; Tropical Botanical Garden Publishers: Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 1996.
Rajendraprasad, M. In: Gis application for habitat mapping and distribution modelling of Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandrasekaran) Venter: A critically endangered shrub,, 2018.
Ahmad, Z.; Shahzad, A.; Sharma, S. Enhanced multiplication and improved ex vitro acclimatization of Decalepis arayalpathra. Biol. Plant., 2017, 1-10.
Sudha, C.G.; Sherina, T.V.; Anand, V.A.; Reji, J.V.; Padmesh, P.; Soniya, E.V. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation of the medicinal plant Decalepis arayalpathra and production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 2013, 112(2), 217-226.
Ravikumar, K.; Ved, D.K. Illustrated field guide to 100 Red listed medicinal plants of conservation concern in Southern India Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Bangalore, India, 2000, pp 383-386.
Molur, S.; Walker, S. Report on conservation assessment and management plan (CAMP) In Workshop for selected species of medicinal plants of southern India, Bangalore, India,, 1997, pp 108.
Mishra, P.; Kumar, A.; Sivaraman, G.; Shukla, A.K.; Kaliamoorthy, R.; Slater, A.; Velusamy, S. Character-based DNA barcoding for authentication and conservation of IUCN Red listed threatened species of genus Decalepis (Apocynaceae). Scientif. Rep., 2017, 7(1), 14910.
Gokul, S. Reproductive biology and conservation of a monotypic, endemic, critically endangered and red listed medicinal plant Janakia arayalpathra Josephv & Chandras; Manonmaniam Sundaranar University: TamilNadu, India, 2015.
Anonymous Tamilnadu State Biodiversity Notification. 2011. REGD.No. D.L-33004/99. Ministry of Environment and Forests: Government of India, N.D Ed., 2011.
Seeni, S.; Decruse, S.W.; Leadlay, E. In In-vitro multiplication and restoration of selected rare, endangered and threatened plants of India, Building a sustainable future: the role of botanic gardens. Proceedings of the 3rd Global Botanic Gardens Congress, Wuhan, China, 16-20 April, 2007, Botanic Gardens Conservation International:, 2007, pp 1-4.
Premalatha, K.; Gokul, S.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, P.; Mishra, P.; Ravikumar, K.; Kalra, A. Molecular profiling of fungal assemblages in the healthy and infected roots of Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethnomedicinal plant from Western Ghats, India. Ann. Microbiol., 2014, 65(2), 1-13.
Subramoniam, A.; Rajasekharan, S.; Pushpangadan, P.; George, V.; Nair, G.P. A process for preparation of a novel herbal medicinal composition for cancer treatment from Janakia arayalpathra root and Trichopus zeylanicus leaf. Indian Patent IN193609,, 2010.
Nagarajan, S.; Rao, L.M.; Ravi, R. Method for preparing flavored tea using a natural flavorant, 2-hydroxy,4- methoxy benzaldehyde from swallow roots. Indian Patent IN2007DE00714A, 2008.
Giridhar, P.; Rajasekaran, T.; Ravishanker, G.A. A process for production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde from tubers of Decalepis hamiltonii. Indian Patent IN2003DE00439A, 2007.
Schmidt, B.; Krehl, S.; Kelling, A.; Schilde, U. Synthesis of 8-aryl-substituted coumarins based on ring-closing metathesis and suzuki–miyaura coupling: Synthesis of a furyl coumarin natural product from Galipea panamensis. J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77(5), 2360-2367.
Banville, J.; Rèmillard, R.; Ruediger, E.H.; Deon, D.H.; Gagnon, M.; Dubé, L.; Guy, J.; Priestley, E.S.; Posy, S.L.; Maxwell, B.D. Imidazothiadiazole and imidazopyrazine derivatives as protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) inhibitors for treating platelet aggregation. U.S. Patent 20,150,094,297, 2015.
Delogu, G.; Podda, G.; Corda, M.; Fadda, M.B.; Fais, A.; Era, B. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of bis-salicylaldehydes as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2010, 20(20), 6138-6140.
Hangauer, D.G., Jr; El-Araby, M.E.; Milkiewicz, K.L.; Nicotera, T.; Henderson, D. Preparation of indolecarboxamides as protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Patent WO2003035621A1 2003.
Rani, A.; Jain, S.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A. 1,5-Bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1,4-diene-3-one: A lead compound for the development of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. S. Afr. J. Chem., 2009, 63(1), 31-35.
Hiramatsu, K.; Morimoto, Y.; Baba, T. Antimicrobial agents containing flavones effective against quinolone-resistant strains Patent WO2014077224A1, 2014.
Shin, S.Y.; Jung, H.; Ahn, S.; Hwang, D.; Yoon, H.; Hyun, J.; Yong, Y.; Cho, H.J.; Koh, D.; Lee, Y.H.; Lim, Y. Polyphenols bearing cinnamaldehyde scaffold showing cell growth inhibitory effects on the cisplatin-resistant A2780/C is ovarian cancer cells. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2014, 22(6), 1809-1820.
Whiting, E.; Lanning, M.E.; Scheenstra, J.A.; Fletcher, S. Chromatography free entry to substituted salicylonitriles: Mitsunobu-triggered domino reactions of salicylaldoximes. J. Org. Chem., 2014, 80(2), 1229-1234.
Bernet, A.; Seifert, K. A new approach to sesquiterpene arenes of the 9, 11-Drimenyl Type ([(1E, 2RS, 4aRS, 8aRS)-Octahydro-2, 5, 5, 8a-tetramethylnaphthalen-1 (2H)-ylidene] methyl Type). Helv. Chim. Acta, 2006, 89(4), 784-796.
Chen, S.; Hossain, M.S.; Foss Jr, F.W. Organocatalytic dakin oxidation by nucleophilic flavin catalysts. Org. Lett., 2012, 14(11), 2806-2809.
Dewan, S.K.; Singh, R.; Kumar, A. One-pot synthesis of nitriles from aldehydes and hydroxylamine hydrochloride over silica gel, montmorillonites K-10, and KSF catalysts in dry media under microwave irradiation. Synth. Commun., 2004, 34(11), 2025-2029.
Ingole, P.G.; Bajaj, H.C.; Singh, K. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic study of polymeric metal complexes derived from divalent transition metal ions with 2, 4 dihydroxy benzophenone and 2, 4-dihydroxy acetophenone. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013, 128(1), 66-74.
Jr. Winneroski, L.L.; Xu, Y.; York, J.S. Preparation of phenoxyether derivatives as PPAR modulators. U.S. Patent 7,608,639B2, 2005.
Lamba, M.S.; Makrandi, J.K. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers using pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate under microwave irradiation. J. Chem. Res., 2007, 2007(10), 585-586.
Chopra, R.; Krishnamurti, M. Synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one. Indian J. Chem., 1989, 28B(49), 680-682.
Li, H.S.; Liu, G. Copper/silver-mediated cascade reactions for the construction of 2-sulfonylbenzofurans from trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acids and sodium sulfinates. J. Org. Chem., 2014, 79(2), 509-516.
Yang, Z.; Yu, H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, H.; Xiao, Y.; Chen, L.; Guo, H. PPh3-catalyzed ring-expansion reactions of sulfamate-derived cyclic imines with acetylenedicarboxylates. Chem. Asian J., 2014, 9(1), 313-318.
Krow, G.R. The Baeyer–Villiger oxidation of ketones and aldehydes. Org. React., 1993, 43(3), 251-798.
Malesani, G.; Chiarelotto, G. Synthesis of 3-acyl-4,7-disubstituted indoles. Gazz. Chim. Ital., 1975, 105(3), 293-302.
Whiting, E.; Lanning, M.E.; Scheenstra, J.A.; Fletcher, S. Chromatography free entry to substituted salicylonitriles: Mitsunobu-triggered domino reactions of salicylaldoximes. J. Org. Chem., 2015, 80(2), 1229-1234.
Krow, G.R. The Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones and aldehydes. Org. React., 1993, 43(3), 251-798.
Behrman, E.J. The persulfate oxidation of phenols and arylamines (The Elbs and the Boyland-Sims oxidations). Org. React., 1988, 35, 421-511.
Delogu, G.; Podda, G.; Corda, M.; Fadda, M.B.; Fais, A.; Era, B. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of bis-salicylaldehydes as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2010, 20, 6138-6140.
Searcey, M.; Grewal, S.S.; Madeo, F.; Tsoungas, P.G. A mild procedure for the production of secondary amines from oximes and benzisoxazoles. Tetrahedron Lett., 2003, 44(35), 6745-6747.
Clerici, A.; Porta, O.; Arnone, A. Reduction of o-hydroxy-benzaldehydes by aqueous titanium trichloride: A new route to 2-(benzofuran-2-yl)phenols. J. Org. Chem., 1990, 55(4), 1240-1248.
Chatziefthimiou, S.D.; Lazarou, Y.G.; Hadjoudis, E.; Dziembowska, T.; Mavridis, I.M. Keto forms of salicylaldehyde schiff bases: Structural and theoretical aspects. J. Phys. Chem., 2006, 110(47), 23701-23709.
Thangavel, K. Histochemistry, antibacterial screening and tissue culture studies on threatened endemic medicinal plants- Janakia arayalpathra Joseph & Chandras. and Decalepis hamiltonii; Wight & Arn. Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Alwarkurichi: Tamil Nadu, India, 2008.
Sudha, C.G. Tissue culture studies on three rare medicinal plants of India Holostemma annulare, Janakia arayalpathra and Rauwoflia micrantha; The University of Kerala, 1996.
Nagarajan, S.; Jagan Mohan Rao, L.; Gurudutt, K.N. Chemical composition of the volatiles of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn). Flavour Fragrance J., 2001, 16(1), 27-29.
Nagarajan, S.; Jagan Mohan Rao, L.; Gurudutt, K. Chemical composition of the volatiles of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. Flavour Fragrance J., 2001, 16(3), 212-214.
Jirovetz, L.; Buchbauer, G.; Höferi, M.; Shafi, M.P.; Sagaran, P.G. Essential oil analysis of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. roots from Southern India. J. Essent. Oil Res., 2002, 14(6), 437-438.
Kashima, Y.; Miyazawa, M. Chemical composition of essential oil from bark of Saraca indica. Chem. Nat. Compd., 2012, 47(6), 998-1000.
Miyazawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Yamafuji, C.; Matsui, M.; Kasahara, N.; Takagi, Y.; Ishikawa, Y. Chemical composition of volatile oil from the roots of Periploca sepium. J. Oleo Sci., 2004, 53(10), 511-513.
Hajji, M.; Masmoudi, O.; Souissi, N.; Triki, Y.; Kammoun, S.; Nasri, M. Chemical composition, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from Periploca laevigata root barks. Food Chem., 2010, 121(3), 724-731.
Goulding, E.; Pelly, R. Note on p-methoxysalicylaldehyde and its occurrence in the root of a species of Chlorocodon. Proc. Chem. Soc., 1911, 27, 235.
Thippeswamy, S.; Abhishek, R.U.; Manjunath, K.; Raveesha, K.A.; Mohana, D.C. Antifumonisin efficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde isolated from Decalepis Hamiltonii. Int. J. Food Prop., 2015, 18(9), 2002-2008.
Mohana, D.K. Antifungal activity of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde isolated from Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn.) on seed-borne fungi causing biodeterioration of paddy. J. Plant Prot. Res., 2009, 49(3), 250-256.
Watcho, P.; Kamtchouing, P.; Sokeng, S.D.; Moundipa, P.F.; Tantchou, J.; Essame, J.L.; Koueta, N. Androgenic effect of Mondia whitei roots in male rats. Asian J. Androl., 2004, 6(3), 269-272.
Wang, J.; Liu, H.; Zhao, J.; Gao, H.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Sui, P. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the root bark essential oil of Periploca sepium and its main component 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Molecules, 2010, 15(8), 5807-5817.
Shi, J.; Yamashita, T.; Todo, A.; Nitoda, T.; Izumi, M.; Baba, N.; Nakajima, S. Repellent from traditional Chinese medicine, Periploca sepium Bunge. Zeitschrift für. Naturforsch. C, 2007, 62(11), 821-825.
Chu, S.S.; Jiang, G.H.; Liu, W.L.; Liu, Z.L. Insecticidal activity of the root bark essential oil of Periploca sepium Bunge and its main component. Nat. Prod. Res., 2012, 26(10), 926-932.
Kubo, I.; Kinst-Hori, I. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde: a potent tyrosinase inhibitor from African medicinal plants. Planta Med., 1999, 65(1), 19-22.
Mukonyi, K.W.; Ndiege, I.O. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzaldehyde: Aromatic taste modifying compound from Mondia whytei skeels. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 2001, 15(2), 137-142.
Mahanga, G.M.; Akenga, T.O.; Lwande, W.; Ndiege, I.O. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde: larvicidal structure-activity studies. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 2005, 19(1), 61-68.
Kundu, A.; Mitra, A. Flavoring extracts of Hemidesmus indicus roots and Vanilla planifolia pods exhibit in-vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2013, 68(3), 247-253.
Sudha, C.G.; Seeni, S. Establishment and analysis of fast-growing normal root culture of Decalepis arayalpathra, a rare endemic medicinal plant. Curr. Sci., 2001, 81(4), 371-374.
Gangaprasad, A.; Decruse, S.W.; Seeni, S.; Nair, G.M. Micropropagation and ecorestoration of Decalepis arayalpathra (Joseph & Chandras) Venter- An endemic and endangered ethnomedicinal plant of Western Ghats. Indian J. Biotechnol., 2005, 4(2), 265-270.
Anonymous, National gene bank for medicinal and aromatic plants-consolidated report for phase I; TBGRI-Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute: Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 1997, pp. 41-50.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [376 - 389]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666190318115504
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 12