Aim: The study aimed to provide an overall view of current data considering the presence
of microRNAs in amniotic fluid.
Methods: The available literature in MEDLINE, regarding the role of the amniotic fluid in pregnancy
and fetal development, was searched for related articles including terms such as “microRNA”, “Amniotic
fluid”, “Adverse outcome” and others.
Results: The amniotic fluid has an undoubtedly significant part in fetal nutrition, with a protecting
and thermoregulatory role alongside. MicroRNAs have proven to be highly expressed during pregnancy
in many body liquids including amniotic fluid and are transferred between cells loaded in exosomes,
while they are also implicated in many processes during fetal development and could be potential
biomarkers for early prediction of adverse outcomes.
Conclusion: Current knowledge reveals that amniotic fluid microRNAs participate in many developmental
and physiological processes of pregnancy including proliferation of fibroblasts, fetal development,
angiogenesis, cardioprotection, activation of signaling pathways, differentiation and cell motility,
while the expression profile of specific microRNAs has a potential prognostic role in the prediction
of Down syndrome, congenital hydronephrosis and kidney fibrosis.