Context: Stavudine is an antiretroviral therapy with so many side effects and has short half life of 1.5 h. It degrades to thymine under hydrolytic, oxidative and photolytic conditions hence, has major formulation challenges.
Objectives: To formulate sustained release lipid based stavudine and to study the properties of the formulations by in vitro and in vivo methods.
Materials and method: Stavudine tablets were formulated by molding using validated tablets moulds. The carrier used were solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS) made up of varying ratios of hydrogenated palm oil and Phospholipid admixtures. Evaluation tests were carried out on the tablets using both Pharmacopoeial and non Pharmacopoeial test. Drug release was studied in both simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2). In vivo release was studied using Wistar rats.
Results: The results showed that stavudine tablets exhibited weight range of 372 ± 0.14 to 386 ± 0.52 mg, friability ranged from 0.00 to 0.13 % and hardness ranged from 4.27 ± 0.25 to 5.30 ± 0.21 Kgf. Tablets formulated with SRMS 1:2 had erosion time range of 60.80 ± 1.23 to 87.90 ± 2.33 min and were affected significantly by the presence of Poloxamer 188 (p < 0.05). The formulations exhibited T100 % at 10 to13 h in SIF. Stavudine tablets showed area under the curve (AUC) of 854.0 μg/h/ml, significantly higher than the AUC of the reference (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Stavudine SRMS-based tablets had good stability and sustained release properties. Formulations containing 1 % Poloxamer 188 exhibited enhanced in vivo absorption and hence could be used once daily in order to enhance the bioavailability of this drug.
Keywords: HIV, Tablets, Lipids, Area under the curve, Stavudine, Solidified reverse micelles.
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