Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis of Aplastic Anemia

Author(s): Chunyan Liu, Yingying Sun, Zonghong Shao*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 25 , Issue 3 , 2019

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Abstract:

Abnormal activation of the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia (AA). Various immune cells and cytokines constitute a complex immune network, leading to bone marrow failure. The known pathogenesis is an increase of the myeloid dendritic cell (mDC)/ plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) ratio, which causes the ratio of T helper (Th)1/Th2 to be skewed in favor of Th1 and eventually leads to an abnormal activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). The antigens that stimulate T cells in the context of AA remain unknown. In this process, regulatory T (Treg), Th17, natural killer (NK) cell, memory T cell and negative hematopoietic regulatory factors are also involved. In addition, genetic background (e.g., chromosomal abnormalities, telomere attrition, somatic cell mutations), abnormal bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment and viral infection may also contribute to the pathogenesis of AA. This review summarizes the recent studies of the pathogenesis of AA and the current status of AA research.

Keywords: Aplastic Anemia, immunosuppressive therapies, pathogenesis, cytokines, myeloid dendritic cell, bone marrow failure.

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VOLUME: 25
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2019
Page: [236 - 241]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190313113601
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