Human NIN1/RPN12 binding protein 1 homolog (NOB1), an RNA binding protein, is expressed ubiquitously in normal tissues such as the lung, liver, and spleen. Its core physiological function is to regulate protease activities and participate in maintaining RNA metabolism and stability. NOB1 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate carcinoma, osteosarcoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and glioma. Although existing data indicate that NOB1 overexpression is associated with cancer growth, invasion, and poor prognosis, the molecular mechanisms behind these effects and its exact roles remain unclear. Several studies have confirmed that NOB1 is clinically relevant in different cancers, and further research at the molecular level will help evaluate the role of NOB1 in tumors. NOB1 has become an attractive target in anticancer therapy because it is overexpressed in many cancers and mediates different stages of tumor development. Elucidating the role of NOB1 in different signaling pathways as a potential cancer treatment will provide new ideas for existing cancer treatment methods. This review summarizes the research progress made into NOB1 in cancer in the past decade; this information provides valuable clues and theoretical guidance for future anticancer therapy by targeting NOB1.