Effects of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells on Liver Diseases

Author(s): Wenjie Zheng, Yumin Yang, Russel Clive Sequeira, Colin E. Bishop, Anthony Atala, Zhifeng Gu*, Weixin Zhao*.

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Volume 14 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Abstract:

Therapeutic effects of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) transplantation have been observed in various disease models. However, it is thought that MSCs-mediated effects largely depend on the paracrine manner of secreting cytokines, growth factors, and Extracellular Vesicles (EVs). Similarly, MSCs-derived EVs also showed therapeutic benefits in various liver diseases through alleviating fibrosis, improving regeneration of hepatocytes, and regulating immune activity. This review provides an overview of the MSCs, their EVs, and their therapeutic potential in treating various liver diseases including liver fibrosis, acute and chronic liver injury, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). More specifically, the mechanisms by which MSC-EVs induce therapeutic benefits in liver diseases will be covered. In addition, comparisons between MSCs and their EVs were also evaluated as regenerative medicine against liver diseases. While the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy must continue to be evaluated and verified, MSCs-derived EVs currently show tremendous potential and promise as a regenerative medicine treatment for liver disease in the future.

Keywords: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, extracellular vesicles, liver diseases, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, regenerative medicine.

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VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2019
Page: [442 - 452]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1574888X14666190308123714
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