Clostridium Difficile Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

Author(s): Abdulmajeed A. Albarrak, Bhupinder S. Romana, Suleyman Uraz, Mohamad H. Yousef, Alhareth A. Juboori, Veysel Tahan*.

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders)

Volume 19 , Issue 7 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the general population has been recognized by health care organizations worldwide. The emergence of hypervirulent strains has made CDI more challenging to understand and treat. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at higher risk of infection, including CDI.

Objective: A diagnostic approach for recurrent CDI has yet to be validated, particularly for IBD patients. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxins A and B, as well as glutamate dehydrogenase EIA, are both rapid testing options for the identification of CDI. Without a high index of suspicion, it is challenging to initially differentiate CDI from an IBD flare based on clinical evaluation alone.

Methods: Here, we provide an up-to-date review on CDI in IBD patients. When caring for an IBD patient with suspected CDI, it is appropriate to empirically treat the presumed infection while awaiting further test results.

Results: Treatment with vancomycin or fidaxomicin, but not oral metronidazole, has been advocated by an expert review from the clinical practice update committee of the American Gastroenterology Association. Recurrent CDI is more common in IBD patients compared to non-IBD patients (32% versus 24%), thus more aggressive treatment is recommended for IBD patients along with early consideration of fecal microbiota transplant.

Conclusion: Although the use of infliximab during CDI has been debated, clinical experience exists supporting its use in an IBD flare, even with active CDI when needed.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, treatment, management, pathogenesis, biologic therapy.

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VOLUME: 19
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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1871530319666190301120558
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