Different natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers have been used in vaccine formulations as adjuvant and delivery system but have faced various limitations. Chitosan is a new delivery system with the potential to improve development of nano vaccines and drugs. However, chitosan is only soluble in acidic solutions of low concentration inorganic acids such as dilute acetic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid and in pure organic solvents, which greatly limits its application. Chemical modification of chitosan is an important way to improve its weak solubility. Quaternized chitosan not only retains the excellent properties of chitosan, but also improves its water solubility for a wider application. Recently, quaternized chitosan nanoparticles have been widely used in biomedical field. This review focuses on some quaternized chitosan nanoparticles, and points out the advantages and research direction of quaternized chitosan nanoparticles. As shown by the applications of quaternized chitosan nanoparticles as adjuvant and delivery carrier in vaccines, quaternized chitosan nanoparticles have promising potential in application for the development of nano vaccines in the future.