Cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of preventable health loss from disease in
the world and lead to functional disturbances including hematological parameters. The
inflammatory and hypoxemic nature of cardiovascular diseases causes a stimulus in the bone
marrow and, depending on the intensity of this stimulus, there is a release of immature cells or
increase of other cells in the bloodstream. Therefore, their presence in the circulation is an
important variable used to diagnose, stratify and predict diseases.
In the last five decades, with the advent of automated counting of immature cells in the peripheral
blood, the hemogram was transformed into a clinical tool of great importance in hospital
surveillance for demonstrating this daily variability in the hematopoietic response according to the
existing injury in the patient. Studies have shown that the presence of nucleated red blood cells and
increases in mean platelet volume, immature granulocytes and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the
systemic circulation are independent prognostic biomarkers.
This review article has as main objective to demonstrate the association of these hematological
parameters to cardiovascular diseases, emphasizing their importance in clinical decision making.