Therapeutic Potential of Amniotic Fluid Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Based on their Differentiation Capacity and Immunomodulatory Properties

Author(s): Carl R. Harrell, Marina Gazdic, Crissy Fellabaum, Nemanja Jovicic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic*.

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Volume 14 , Issue 4 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Amniotic Fluid Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AF-MSCs) are adult, fibroblast- like, self-renewable, multipotent stem cells. During the last decade, the therapeutic potential of AF-MSCs, based on their huge differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory characteristics, has been extensively explored in animal models of degenerative and inflammatory diseases.

Objective: In order to describe molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of AFMSCs, we summarized current knowledge about phenotype, differentiation potential and immunosuppressive properties of AF-MSCs.

Methods: An extensive literature review was carried out in March 2018 across several databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar), from 1990 to present. Keywords used in the selection were: “amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells”, “cell-therapy”, “degenerative diseases”, “inflammatory diseases”, “regeneration”, “immunosuppression”. Studies that emphasized molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for AF-MSC-based therapy were analyzed in this review.

Results: AF-MSCs have huge differentiation and immunosuppressive potential. AF-MSCs are capable of generating cells of mesodermal origin (chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes), neural cells, hepatocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, insulin-producing cells, cardiomyocytes and germ cells. AF-MSCs, in juxtacrine or paracrine manner, regulate proliferation, activation and effector function of immune cells. Due to their huge differentiation capacity and immunosuppressive characteristic, transplantation of AFMSCs showed beneficent effects in animal models of degenerative and inflammatory diseases of nervous, respiratory, urogenital, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system.

Conclusion: Considering the fact that amniotic fluid is obtained through routine prenatal diagnosis, with minimal invasive procedure and without ethical concerns, AF-MSCs represents a valuable source for cell-based therapy of organ-specific or systemic degenerative and inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: Amniotic fluid, mesenchymal stem cells, cell-based therapy, regeneration, immunomodulation, fibroblast.

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VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2019
Page: [327 - 336]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1574888X14666190222201749
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