Low-Dose Radiation Advances in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Author(s): Caryl E. Richards , Daniel R. Obaid* .

Journal Name: Current Cardiology Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is now widely used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease since it is a rapid, minimally invasive test with a diagnostic accuracy comparable to coronary angiography. However, to meet demands for increasing spatial and temporal resolution, higher x-ray radiation doses are required to circumvent the resulting increase in image noise. Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation with CT imaging is a major health concern due to the potential risk of radiation-associated malignancy. Given its increasing use, a number of dose saving algorithms have been implemented to CCTA to minimize radiation exposure to “as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)” without compromising diagnostic image quality.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to outline the most recent advances and current status of dose saving techniques in CCTA.

Method: PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Scholar databases were searched to identify feasibility studies, clinical trials, and technology guidelines on the technical advances in CT scanner hardware and reconstruction software.

Results: Sub-millisievert (mSv) radiation doses have been reported for CCTA due to a combination of strategies such as prospective electrocardiogram-gating, high-pitch helical acquisition, tube current modulation, tube voltage reduction, heart rate reduction, and the most recent novel adaptive iterative reconstruction algorithms.

Conclusion: Advances in radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality justify the use of CCTA as a non-invasive alternative to coronary catheterization in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

Keywords: Coronary computed tomography angiography, effective radiation dose, image quality, prospective electrocardiogram- gating, tube voltage reduction, tube current modulation, iterative reconstruction.

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VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2019
Page: [304 - 315]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1573403X15666190222163737
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