Objective: Chitosan, chitosan nanoparticle, ethanolic extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum root and Cyperus rotundus rhizome were evaluated against plasmid mediated multi-drug resistance of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp. isolated from unstimulated saliva of chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods: Identification of facultative anaerobes, antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid stability and plasmid curing was carried out using established protocols for the above natural product and herbal extracts for the characterization of possible resistance plasmids.
Results: E. faecalis showed clear zone of inhibition above 94% sensitivity to chitosan nanoparticle, chitosan 74%, C. rotundus 81% and A. pyrethrum 57%, with the MIC >50 ug/ml for all tested compounds. Highest resistance rate to cefuroxime, meropenem and tetracycline (89%) was observed for E. faecalis, followed by cefixime and ampicillin (87%) for S. aureus, and ceftriaxone(100%) for Bacillus sp. The stability of native plasmid at 350th generation was 20% in E.faecalis, but significantly reduced to <4% in S. aureusand16% in Bacillus sp. The maximum plasmid curing efficiency of chitosan was 76% for S. aureus, chitosan nanoparticle 88% for E. faecalis, A. pyrethrum 73% for S. aureus, forC.rotundus87% against E. faecalis. Chitosan nanoparticle and C. rotundus had remarkable plasmid curing efficiency.
Conclusion: Chitosan nanoparticle then C. rotundus, chitosan, and A.pyrethrum also offered a greater potential in eliminating plasmid mediated resistance possessed by periodontal pathogens, thus addressing one of the clinical challenges in dentistry.