Background: Valeriana jatamansi Jones (Syn. V. wallichii DC.; Fam. – Valerianaceae) is a medicinal plant species, endemic to the Himalayan regions of India and rich in presence of iridoids. This plant species possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Methods: The shade-dried roots were powdered, percolated with 95% ethanol for 36 h at room temperature (3 times) and filtrate used for isolation of iridoids. The isolated compounds identified based on physical and spectral data analysis. For the enhancement of production of iridoids, the callus cultures established on MS culture medium with variable concentrations of growth hormones. The iridoids estimated by using HPLC-SPD-M10A photodiode array detector and GC-MS analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of iridoids assessed by using carrageenan and CFA-induced adjuvant models in experimental rats. The total eight bacterial and five fungal strains used for determination of antimicrobial activity. The activity assessed by using microdilution method.
Results: Total seven iridoids were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction and their production estimated in cell cultures. The maximum accumulation (69.390.45 mg/g) of jatamanvaltrate S was observed in 2, 4-D (4.0 mg/l) and kinetin (1.0 mg/l) supplemented MS culture medium. Maximum anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated by jatamanvaltrate R (46.8%) at the dose of 20 mg/kg body weight (bw) at 8 h after carrageenan injection. Similarly, the jatamanvaltrate R also displayed maximum inhibitory activity (49.9%) to CFA-induced adjuvant arthritis in rats on day 8. The strongest antibacterial activity was exhibited by jatamanvaltrate S (21 μg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus while maximum antifungal efficacy displayed by jatamanin B (30 μg/ml) against Penicillium chrysogenum.
Conclusion: In this study, all the isolated iridoids found as bioactive molecules and exhibited promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.