Background: Bacterial metabolism contributes to the generation of uremic toxins in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been investigated the use of probiotics in the reduction of uremic toxins intestinal production.
Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic supplementation on reducing the production of uremic toxins and the inflammatory profile of CKD patients.
Methods: We performed a randomized, blind, placebo controlled, crossover study on patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. The intervention was a probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains given orally three times a day for 3 months. Change in uremic toxins (p-Cresylsulfate and Indoxyl Sulfate) and serum inflammatory cytokines were the primary endpoint.
Results: Of the 44 patients randomized, 25 completed the study (mean age 51 ± 9.34, 64% female, mean eGFR 36±14.26 mL/min/1.73m², mean BMI 28.5±5.75 kg/m²). At 3 months, there were no significant changes in any of the studied biomarkers including p-Cresylsulfate (p = 0.57), Indoxyl sulfate (p = 0.08) and interleukin-6 (p = 0.55).
Conclusion: Lactobacillus acidophilus strains given as probiotic were not able to reduce serum levels of uremic toxins and biomarkers of inflammation in CKD patients in stage 3 and 4.