Background: Osteoporosis, characterized by compromised bone quality and strength is
associated with bone fragility and fracture risk. Biomarkers are crucial for the diagnosis or prognosis
of a disease as well as elucidating the mechanism of drug action and improve decision making.
Objective: An exhaustive description of traditional markers including bone mineral density, vitamin D,
alkaline phosphatase, along with potential markers such as microarchitectural determination, trabecular
bone score, osteocalcin, etc. is provided in the current piece of work. This review provides insight into
novel pathways such as the Wnt signaling pathway, neuro-osseous control, adipogenic hormonal imbalance,
gut-bone axis, genetic markers and the role of inflammation that has been recently implicated
Methods: We extensively reviewed articles from the following databases: PubMed, Medline and Science
direct. The primary search was conducted using a combination of the following keywords: osteoporosis,
bone, biomarkers, bone turnover markers, diagnosis, density, architecture, genetics, inflammation.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis and intervention delay the development of disease and improve treatment
outcome. Therefore, probing for novel biomarkers that are able to recognize people at high risk for
developing osteoporosis is an effective way to improve the quality of life of patients and to understand
the pathomechanism of the disease in a better way.