A New Approach for Cancer Immunotherapy Based on the Cancer Stem Cell Antigens Properties

Author(s): Shirin Mahmoodi, Navid Nezafat*, Manica Negahdaripour, Younes Ghasemi*.

Journal Name: Current Molecular Medicine

Volume 19 , Issue 1 , 2019

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Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare population of tumor cells, which play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and maintenance. The concept that cancer cells arise from stem cells was presented about 150 years ago. Recently, this hypothesis was renewed considering the heterogeneity of tumor cells. CSCs are resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, targeting CSCs could be a novel and effective strategy to struggle with tumor cells.

Objective: In this mini-review, we highlight that different immunotherapeutic approaches can be used to target cancer cells and eradicate different tumor cells. The most important targets are specific markers recognized on the CSC surface as CSC antigens such as CD44, CD133, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH), and SOX family members. This article emphasizes recent advances in CSCs in cancer therapy.

Results: Our results present that CSC antigens play an important role in tumor initiation, especially in the cells that are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy agents. Therefore, they are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy, for instance, in developing different types of cancer vaccines or antibodies against tumor cells.

Conclusion: The current studies related to cancer immunotherapy through targeting the CSC antigens based on their properties are briefly summarized. Altogether, CSC antigens can be efficiently targeted to treat cancer patients.

Keywords: Cancer stem cell antigen, cancer immunotherapy, heterogeneity, target, tumor cells, stem cells.

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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1566524019666190204114721
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