Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a serious impact on the maternal health as well as on health of infant. This is also very closely related to adverse outcomes in pregnancy. A mother suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has high incidences of showing significant risks to the fetus health, growth and development. As the incidences of GDM are increasing day by day then the maternal health, age and obesity parameters are a major concern for reflecting GDM during their pregnancy conditions. It has been studied and investigated that the IR (Insulin Resistance) is a common pathway in GDM and T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus).
Objective: To explore the effect of Cajanus cajan in treating gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Wistar rats.
Methods: The study was conducted on 30 female rats which were caged along with male rats. We obtained 26 pregnant rats which were weighed. The pregnant rats in the control group, intervention group, and GDM group were equally randomized. When the pregnancy was verified, the Intervention and the GDM (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) group were given 45 mg/kg streptozotocin by the peritoneal injection for inducing GDM while the control group was given an equal volume of the citrate buffer.
When the model was established accurately then the intervention group was administered orally with the extracts of leaves of Cajanus cajan chloroform extract (270mg/kg), Methanol extract (270mg/kg) and Ethyl acetate extract (270mg/kg). Whereas the other groups were administered with water and diet.
The blood samples were collected and the fetal rats along with placental weight were recorded on the 19th day of the pregnancy. The serum glucose levels, serum insulin levels, and lipid levels were recorded in pregnant rats before the delivery.
Results: The rats were weighted before and after delivery, fetal weight was recorded, placental weight of the GDM group was found to be lower than the control group as well as the intervention groups. Treating with (Chloroform extract, Methanol extract, Ethyl acetate extract (270mg/kg) different extracts of Cajanus cajan leaf in the intervention groups the lipid levels of the intervention group significantly increased in case of the Methanolic extract whereas the other extracts were also effective. The levels of antioxidant enzymes of the GDM group in pancreas and liver tissue were lower in intervention groups as compared to control and GDM group whereas the antioxidant enzyme levels in the liver and pancreas were equivalent to the control group.
The results have drawn a discussion that the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the Cajanus cajan leaves might contain a bioactive nature which is hypoglycemic in nature. Further research is required for the complete evaluation of the active compound in various animal models to justify the nature of the compound.
Conclusions: Cajanus cajan leaf extract suppresses the oxidative stress and insulin resistance, therefore, improves the blood glucose levels in GDM rats.