The Role of Oxidative Stress, Adhesion Molecules and Antioxidants in Preeclampsia

Author(s): Kjell Haram , Jan Helge Mortensen , Ole Myking , Everett F. Magann* , John C. Morrison .

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Oxidative stress is a consequence of reduction in the antioxidant capacity and excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS). Oxidative agents, which are overproduced due to ischemic-reperfusion injury in the placenta, may overwhelm the normal antioxidant activity. This imbalance is a key feature in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. A decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity is associated with the synthesis of vasoconstrictive eicosanoids such as F2-isoprostanes and thromboxane, which are known to be upregulated in preeclampsia. Biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation, such as malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostane in the placenta, are also increased. Adhesion molecules participate in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia by contributing to a reduced invasion by the trophoblast and increased vascular endothelial damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and GPX play important roles counteracting oxidative stress. Other antioxidant factors participate in the etiology of preeclampsia. Levels of antioxidants such as Lycopene, Coenzyme 10, as well as some vitamins, are reduced in preeclamptic gestations.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules, antioxidants, GPX, SOD.

[1]
ACOG task force report on hypertension in pregnancy: 2013; 113: ISBN 978-1-934984-28-F.
[2]
Dekker GA, Sibai BM. Etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia: Current concepts. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: 1359-75.
[3]
Sagen N, Koller O, Haram K. Haemoconcentration in severe pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1982; 89: 802-5.
[4]
Sibai B, Dekker G, Kupferminc M. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2005; 365: 785-99.
[5]
Borzychowski AM, Sargent IL, Redman CW. Inflammation and pre-eclampsia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2006; 11: 309-16.
[6]
Redman CW, Sargent IL. Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia. Science 2005; 308: 1592-4.
[7]
Madazli R, Budak E, Calay Z, et al. Correlation between placental bed biopsy findings, vascular cell adhesion molecule and fibronectin levels in pre-eclampsia. BJOG 2000; 107: 514-8.
[8]
Goksu Erol AY, Nazli M, Elis YS. Significance of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions in preeclamptic placentae. Endocrine 2012; 42: 125-31.
[9]
Bilodeau JF. Review: Maternal and placental antioxidant response to preeclampsia - impact on vasoactive eicosanoids. Placenta 2014; 35(Suppl.): S32-8.
[10]
Burton GJ, Jauniaux E. Oxidative stress. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2011; 25(3): 287-99.
[11]
Poston L, Igosheva N, Mistry HD, et al. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation in pregnancy disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94(6)(Suppl.): 1980S-5S.
[12]
Nasrollahi S, Hoseini Panah SM, Tavilani H, Tavasoli S, Naderan M, Shoar S. Antioxidant status and serum levels of selectins in pre-eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol 2015; 35(1): 16-8.
[13]
Jauniaux E, Watson AL, Hempstock J, et al. Onset of maternal arterial blood flow and placental oxidative stress. A possible factor in human early pregnancy failure. Am J Pathol 2000; 157: 2111-22.
[14]
Aydin S, Benian A, Madazli R, Uludag S, Uzun H, Kaya S. Plasma malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, sE-selectin, fibronectin, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide levels in women with preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004; 113(1): 21-5.
[15]
Burton GJ, Jones CJ. Syncytial knots, sprouts, apoptosis, and trophoblast deportation from the human placenta. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 48: 28-37.
[16]
Pantham P, Askelund KJ, Chamley LW. Trophoblast deportation part II: A review of the maternal consequences of trophoblast deportation. Placenta 2011; 32: 724-31.
[17]
Maia LB, Moura JJ. Putting xanthine oxidoreductase and aldeyhyde oxidase on the NO metabolsim map: Nitrite reduction by molybdoenzymes. Redox Biol 2018; 19: 274-89.
[18]
Stuart JA, Fonseca J, Mradi F, et al. How supraphysiological oxygen levels in standard cell culture affect oxygen-consuming reactions. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018; 2018: 8238459.
[19]
Krebs J, Agellon LB, Michalak M. Ca(2+) homeostatsis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress: An integrated view of calcium signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015; 460(1): 114-21.
[20]
Agellon LB, Michalak M. The endoplasmic reticulum and the cellular reticular network. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017; 981: 61-76.
[21]
Tsai SA, Su TP. Sigma-1 receptors fine tune the neuronal networks. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017; 964: 79-83.
[22]
Burton GJ, Yung HW, Cindrova-Davies T, et al. Placental endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of unexplained intrauterine growth restriction and early onset preeclampsia. Placenta 2009; 30(Suppl. A): S43-8.
[23]
Grazzia R, Pereyra S, Velaquez T, et al. Effect of inflmmation -stress and radical species. In: Morrison JC, Ed. Preterm Birth: Mother and Child. 2012. InTech Press. Rijeka, Croatia
[24]
Rasanen J, Quinn MJ, Laurie A, et al. Maternal serum glycosylated fibronectin as a point-of-care biomarker for assessment of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015; 212: 82-9.
[25]
Ostlund E, Hansson LO, Bremme K. Fibronectin is a markler for organ involvement and may reflect the severity of preeeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 2001; 20: 79-87.
[26]
Farzadnia M, Ayatollahi H, Hasan-Zade M, et al. A comparative study of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Interv Med Appl Sci 2013; 5: 26-30.
[27]
Springer TA. Traffic signals for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration: The multistep paradigm. Cell 1994; 76: 301-14.
[28]
Anderson ME, Siahaan TJ. Targeting ICAM-1/LFA-1 interaction for controlling autoimmune diseases: Designing peptide and small molecule inhibitors. Peptides 2003; 24: 487-501.
[29]
Juliano PB, Blotta MH, Altemani AM. ICAM-1 is overexpressed by villous trophoblasts in placentitis. Placenta 2006; 27: 750-7.
[30]
Krauss T, Emons G, Kuhn W, et al. Predictive value of routine circulating soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecule measurements during pregnancy. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 1418-25.
[31]
Martin HM, Hancock JT, Salisbury V, et al. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase as an antimicrobial agent. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 4933-9.
[32]
Johnson RJ, Kang DH, Feig D, et al. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension 2003; 41: 1183-90.
[33]
Szarka A, Rigo J Jr Lazar L, et al. Circulating cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia determined by multiplex suspension array. BMC Immunol 2010; 11: 59.
[34]
Atamer Y, Kocyigit Y, Yokus B, et al. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, status of trace metals and leptin levels in preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 119: 60-6.
[35]
Aksoy H, Taysi S, Altinkaynak K, et al. Antioxidant potential and transferrin, ceruloplasmin, and lipid peroxidation levels in women with preeclampsia. J Investig Med 2003; 51: 284-7.
[36]
Kolusari A, Adali E, Kurdoglu M, et al. Catalase activity, serum trace element and heavy metal concentrations, vitamin A, vitamin D and vitamin E levels in hydatidiform mole. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2009; 36: 102-4.
[37]
Mistry HD, Gill CA, Kurlak LO, et al. Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. Free Radic Biol Med 2015; 78: 147-55.
[38]
Williams MA, Woelk GB, King IB, et al. Plasma carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and lipoproteins in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant Zimbabwean women. Am J Hypertens 2003; 16: 665-72.
[39]
Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Simhan HN, et al. Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 3517-22.
[40]
Azar M, Basu A, Jenkins AJ, et al. Serum carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in women with type 1 diabetes and preeclampsia: A longitudinal study. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 1258-64.
[41]
Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Roberts JM, et al. Prepregnancy obesity predicts poor vitamin D status in mothers and their neonates. J Nutr 2007; 137: 2437-42.
[42]
Kolusari A, Kurdoglu M, Yildizhan R, et al. Catalase activity, serum trace element and heavy metal concentrations, and vitamin A, D and E levels in pre-eclampsia. J Int Med Res 2008; 36: 1335-41.
[43]
Sharma JB, Kumar A, Kumar A, Malhotra M, et al. Effect of lycopene on pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation in primigravidas. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003; 81: 257-62.
[44]
Teran E, Hernandez I, Nieto B, Tavara R, Ocampo JE, Calle A. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009; 105: 43-5.
[45]
Boutet M, Roland L, Thomas N, Bilodeau JF. Specific systemic antioxidant response to preeclampsia in late pregnancy: the study of intracellular glutathione peroxidases in maternal and fetal blood. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 200: 530. el-530.e7.
[46]
Knuppel RA, Hassan MI, McDermott JJ, Tucker JM, Morrison JC. Oxidative stress and antioxidants: Preterm birth and preterm infants. In Preterm Birth: Mother and Child. Ed. 2012: 125-50. InTech Press. Rijeka, Croatia.
[47]
Briley LP, Seed PT, Shennan AH. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pree-eclampsia (VIP trail): Randomized placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 2006; 367: 1145-54.
[48]
Robert JM, August PA, Bakris G, et al. Hypertension in pregnancy, ACOG task force on hypertension in pregnancy. ACOG 2013; 618: 1-89.
[49]
Hofmey GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertension disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 8: Art No. CD001059.
[50]
Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ, Meher S, King JF. Antiplatelet agents for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 2: Art No. CD004659.
[51]
Mistry HD, Wilson V, Ramsay MM, et al. Reduced selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity in preeclamptic pregnancies. Hypertension 2008; 52: 881-8.
[52]
Ghaemi SZ, Forouhari S, Dabbaghmanesh MH, et al. A prospective study of selenium concentration and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant Iranian women: A nested case-control study. Biol Trace Elem Res 2013; 152: 174-9.
[53]
Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2007; 87: 315-424.
[54]
Roberge S, Nicolaides K, Demers S, Hyett J, Chaillet N, Bujold E. The role of aspirin dose on the prevention of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017; 16(2): 110-20.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [105 - 112]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1573402115666190119163942

Article Metrics

PDF: 40
HTML: 4