Recent Patents in Additive Manufacturing of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites

Author(s): Chao Hu, Zeyu Sun, Yi Xiao, Qinghua Qin*.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering

Volume 12 , Issue 1 , 2019

Submit Manuscript
Submit Proposal

Abstract:

Background: Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the accurate fabrication of designed parts in a short time without the need for specific molds and tools. Although polymers are the most widely used raw materials for AM, the products printed by them are inherently weak, unable to sustain large tension or bending stresses. A need for the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites, especially continuous fiber as reinforcement, has attracted great attention in recent years.

Objective: Identifying the progress of the AM of continuous carbon fiber reinforced composites over time and therefore establishing a foundation on which current research can be based.

Methods: Elaborating the most related patents regarding the AM techniques for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced composites in the top three institutions, including Markforged company, Xi’an Jiaotong University and President and Fellows of Harvard College.

Results: The recent patents in AM of continuous fiber reinforced composites are classified into two aspects: patents related to novel technique methods and patents related to novel structures. The current issues and future development of AM-based composites are given.

Conclusion: New structures and techniques have been introduced into conventional 3D printers to enable the printing of continuous fiber reinforced composites. However, until now, Markforged is the only company commercializing the fabrication of this kind of composites based on AM technique. Numerous challenges and issues need to be solved so that AM of continuous fiber reinforced composites can be a new manufacturing method.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, composite, continuous fiber, 3D printing, fused deposition molding, polymer, rapid prototyping, stereolithography.

[1]
Wang X, Jiang M, Zhou Z, Gou J, Hui D. 3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective. Compos, Part B Eng 2017; 110: 442-58.
[2]
Huang SH, Liu P, Mokasdar A, Hou L. Additive manufacturing and its societal impact: A literature review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2013; 67(5-8): 1191-203.
[3]
Lee JY, An J, Chua CK. Fundamentals and applications of 3D printing for novel materials. Appl Mater Today 2017; 7: 120-33.
[4]
Postiglione G, Natale G, Griffini G, Levi M, Turri S. Conductive 3D microstructures by direct 3D printing of polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites via liquid deposition modeling. Compos, Part A Appl Sci Manuf 2015; 76: 110-4.
[5]
Levy GN, Schindel R, Kruth JP. Rapid manufacturing and rapid tooling with Layer Manufacturing (LM) technologies, state of the art and future perspectives. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 2003; 52(2): 589-609.
[6]
Dikshit V, Nagalingam AP, Yap YL, Sing SL, Yeong WY, Wei J. Investigation of quasi-static indentation response of inkjet printed sandwich structures under various indenter geometries. Materials 2017; 10(3): 290.
[7]
Saxena KK, Das R, Calius EP. Three decades of auxetics research materials with negative Poisson’s ratio: A review. Adv Eng Mater 2016; 18(11): 1847-70.
[8]
Chu C, Graf G, Rosen DW. Design for additive manufacturing of cellular structures. Comput Aided Des Appl 2008; 5(5): 686-96.
[9]
Caulfield B, McHugh P, Lohfeld S. Dependence of mechanical properties of polyamide components on build parameters in the SLS process. J Mater Process Technol 2007; 182(1-3): 477-88.
[10]
Serra T, Planell JA, Navarro M. High-resolution PLA-based composite scaffolds via 3-D printing technology. Acta Biomater 2013; 9(3): 5521-30.
[11]
Carneiro OS, Silva A, Gomes R. Fused deposition modeling with polypropylene. Mater Des 2015; 83: 768-76.
[12]
Gu H, Ma C, Gu J, Guo J, Yan X, Huang J, et al. An overview of multifunctional epoxy nanocomposites. J Mater Chem C Mater 2016; 4(25): 5890-906.
[13]
Scheithauer U, Schwarzer E, Richter HJ, Moritz T. Thermoplastic 3D printing-an additive manufacturing method for producing dense ceramics. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015; 12(1): 26-31.
[14]
Kroll E, Artzi D. Enhancing aerospace engineering students’ learning with 3D printing wind-tunnel models. Rapid Prototyping J 2011; 17(5): 393-402.
[15]
Chia HN, Wu BM. Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials. J Biol Eng 2015; 9(1): 4.
[16]
Rayna T, Striukova L. From rapid prototyping to home fabrication: How 3D printing is changing business model innovation. Technol Forecast Soc Change 2016; 102: 214-24.
[17]
Perrot A, Rangeard D, Pierre A. Structural built-up of cement-based materials used for 3D-printing extrusion techniques. Mater Struct 2016; 49(4): 1213-20.
[18]
Kalsoom U, Nesterenko PN, Paull B. Recent developments in 3D printable composite materials. RSC Advances 2016; 6(65): 60355-71.
[19]
Gibson RF. A review of recent research on mechanics of multifunctional composite materials and structures. Compos Struct 2010; 92(12): 2793-810.
[20]
Cen H, Kang Y, Lei ZK, Qin QH, Qiu W. Micromechanics analysis of Kevlar-29 aramid fiber and epoxy resin microdroplet composite by Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Compos Struct 2006; 75(1): 532-8.
[21]
Feng XQ, Mai YW, Qin QH. A micromechanical model for interpenetrating multiphase composites. Comput Mater Sci 2003; 28(3): 486-93.
[22]
Lei YP, Wang H, Qin QH. Micromechanical properties of unidirectional composites filled with single and clustered shaped fibers. Sci Eng Compos Mater 2018; 25(1): 143-52.
[23]
Qin QH. Material properties of piezoelectric composites by BEM and homogenization method. Compos Struct 2004; 66(1): 295-9.
[24]
Qin QH, Wang H. Special elements for composites containing hexagonal and circular fibers. Int J Comput Methods 2015; 12(4): 1540012.
[25]
Qin QH, Yang QS. Macro-Micro Theory on Multifield Coupling Behavior of Hetereogenous Materials. Higher Education Press and Springer: Berlin 2008.
[26]
Qin QH, Yu SW. An arbitrarily-oriented plane crack terminating at the interface between dissimilar piezoelectric materials. Int J Solids Struct 1997; 34: 581-90.
[27]
Parandoush P, Lin D. A review on additive manufacturing of polymer-fiber composites. Compos Struct 2017; 182: 36-53.
[28]
Tekinalp HL, Kunc V, Velez-Garcia GM, Duty CE, Love LJ, Naskar AK, et al. Highly oriented carbon fiber-polymer composites via additive manufacturing. Compos Sci Technol 2014; 105: 144-50.
[29]
Quan Z, Larimore Z, Wu A, Yu J, Qin X, Mirotznik M, et al. Microstructural design and additive manufacturing and characterization of 3D orthogonal short carbon fiber/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene preform and composite. Compos Sci Technol 2016; 126: 139-48.
[30]
Ning F, Cong W, Qiu J, Wei J, Wang S. Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites using fused deposition modeling. Compos, Part B Eng 2015; 80: 369-78.
[31]
Goh G, Dikshit V, Nagalingam A, Goh G, Agarwala S, Sing S, et al. Characterization of mechanical properties and fracture mode of additively manufactured carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics. Mater Des 2018; 137: 79-89.
[32]
Love LJ, Kunc V, Rios O, Duty CE, Elliott AM, Post BK, et al. The importance of carbon fiber to polymer additive manufacturing. J Mater Res 2014; 29(17): 1893-8.
[33]
Wang Y. Mechanical properties of stitched multiaxial fabric reinforced composites from mannual layup process. Appl Compos Mater 2002; 9(2): 81-97.
[34]
Tian X, Liu T, Yang C, Wang Q, Li D. Interface and performance of 3D printed continuous carbon fiber reinforced PLA composites. Compos, Part A Appl Sci Manuf 2016; 88: 198-205.
[35]
Yang C, Tian X, Liu T, Cao Y, Li D. 3D printing for continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites: Mechanism and performance. Rapid Prototyping J 2017; 23(1): 209-15.
[36]
Melenka GW, Cheung BK, Schofield JS, Dawson MR, Carey JP. Evaluation and prediction of the tensile properties of continuous fiber-reinforced 3D printed structures. Compos Struct 2016; 153: 866-75.
[37]
Gupta A, Ogale A. Dual curing of carbon fiber reinforced photoresins for rapid prototyping. Polym Compos 2002; 23(6): 1162-70.
[38]
Mori K-i, Maeno T, Nakagawa Y. Dieless forming of carbon fibre reinforced plastic parts using 3D printer. Proc Eng 2014; 81: 1595-600.
[39]
Nakagawa Y, Mori K-I, Maeno T. 3D printing of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic parts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2017; 91(5-8): 2811-7.
[40]
Van Der Klift F, Koga Y, Todoroki A, Ueda M, Hirano Y, Matsuzaki R. 3D printing of continuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermo-Plastic (CFRTP) tensile test specimens. OJCM 2015; 6(01): 18.
[41]
Gardner JM, Sauti G, Kim JW, Cano RJ, Wincheski RA, Stelter CJ, et al. 3-D printing of multifunctional carbon nanotube yarn reinforced components. Addit Manuf 2016; 12: 38-44.
[42]
Soutis C. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics in aircraft construction. Mater Sci Eng A 2005; 412(1-2): 171-6.
[43]
Advani SG, Sozer EM. Process modeling in composites manufacturing. CRC Press: Boca Raton 2002.
[44]
Mallick PK. Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design. 3rd ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, USA 2007.
[45]
Mark GT, Gozdz AS. Three dimensional printer for fiber reinforced composite filament fabrication. US9126367 (2015).
[46]
Medney J, Klimpl FE. Reinforced plastic laminates for use in the production of printed circuit boards and process for making such laminates and resulting products. US5037691 (1991).
[47]
Crump SS. Modeling apparatus for three-dimensional objects. US5340433 (1994).
[48]
Jang BZ, Liu JH, Chen S, Li ZM, Mahfuz H, Adnan A. Nanotube fiber reinforced composite materials and method of producing fiber reinforced composites. US20030236588 (2003).
[49]
Batchelder JS, Swanson WJ, Crump SS. Method for building three-dimensional models in extrusion-based digital manufacturing systems using ribbon filaments. US8221669 (2012).
[50]
Mark GT, Woodruff RB, Parangi AL, Benhaim DS, Sklaroff BT. Multiaxis fiber reinforcement for 3D printing. US20160311165 (2017).
[51]
Ooba Y, Katou Y, Suzuki K, et al. Three-dimensional molding device. US20170021564 (2017).
[52]
Page JS. Systems and methods for improved 3D printing. US20150266244 (2015).
[53]
Bui M-AT, Fithian TR, Madeley D. Apparatus and method for additive manufacturing. US20160263832 (2016).
[54]
Hsiao H-M, Lee SM, Buyny RA, Martin CJ. Core-crush resistant fabric and prepreg for fiber reinforced composite sandwich structures. US6261675 (2003).
[55]
Nelson PE, Kramp RA Jr, Lum MK. Composite lamination using array of parallel material dispensing heads. US20060162143 (2006).
[56]
Mark GT, Woodruff RB, Benhaim DS, Parangi AL, Sklaroff BT. Composite filament 3D printing using complementary reinforcement formations. US20160107379 (2016).
[57]
Payne LR. Laminate forming and applying apparatus and method and product therefrom. US4955760 (1990).
[58]
Mark GT. Methods for fiber reinforced additive manufacturing. US20140361460 (2014).
[59]
Tayebi A. Colored laminate and a method for coloring the surface of a membrane. US20030094728 (2003).
[60]
Mark GT. Continuous and random reinforcement in a 3D printed part. US20170173868 (2007).
[61]
Mayes JT Jr, Rosene WA. Ribbed composite structure and process and apparatus for producing the same. US4137354 (1979).
[62]
Cramer DR, Beidleman NJ, Chapman CR, Evans DO, Passmore MK, Skinner ML. System and method for the rapid, automated creation of advanced composite tailored blanks. WO2009042225 (2009).
[63]
Mark GT. Embedding 3D printed fiber reinforcement in molded articles. US20170120519 (2017).
[64]
Jang BZ, Ma E. Layer-additive method and apparatus for freeform fabrication of 3-D objects. US6471800 (2002).
[65]
Tow AP. Multi-axis, multi-purpose robotics automation and quality adaptive additive manufacturing. US20130209600 (2013).
[66]
Dunlap EN, Turner DM, Lawson JL. Process for tempering rapid prototype parts. US20030186042 (2003).
[67]
Hauber DE. Reinforced thermoplastic pipe manufacture. US6773773 (2004).
[68]
Tian XY, Yang CC, Cao Y, Tong ZQ, Zhang YY, Li DC. Continuous long-fiber reinforced-type composite material 3D printer and printing method thereof. CN104149339 (2014).
[69]
Xu YL. Printing head device applied to large industrial FDM3D printer. CN105584044 (2015).
[70]
Yao XY, Luan CC, Fu JZ, Lan LJ. Carbon fiber sensing element embedding device and method based on rapid prototyping manufacturing technology. CN105881902 (2016).
[71]
Hao WF, Chen HS, Chen MJ, Pei YM, Fang DN, Zhang XJ. Thermosetting fiber composite material 3D (Three Dimensional) printer and printing method thereof. CN106739006 (2016).
[72]
Duan YG, Ming YK, Ding ZQ. Kinds of continuous fiber reinforced thermosetting resin matrix composites 3D printing process. CN108381908 (2018).
[73]
Keuchel KH. Method of delivering a thermoplastic and/or crosslinking resin to a composite laminate structure. US20090309260 (2009).
[74]
Beall FC, Koppernaes JD. Pultrusion method for condensation resin injection. US5176865 (1993).
[75]
Tian XY, Shang ZT, Yi LX. 3D printing manufacturing method for electromagnetic shielding structure made of continuous fiber reinforced composite. CN107471629 (2017).
[76]
Micheli D, Pastore R, Apollo C, Marchetti M, Gradoni G, Primiani VM, et al. Broadband electromagnetic absorbers using carbon nanostructure-based composites. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 2011; 59(10): 2633-46.
[77]
Wang Z, Guang-Lin Z. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanotubes-epoxy composites in a frequency range of 2-20 GHz. OJCM 2013; 3(2): 17.
[78]
Tian XY, Zhang JK, Hou ZJ, Li DC. Function regulation and control structure production method based on continuous fiber composite material 3D printing. CN107433713 (2017).
[79]
Sahebrao Ingole D, Madhusudan Kuthe A, Thakare SB, Talankar AS. Rapid prototyping-a technology transfer approach for development of rapid tooling. Rapid Prototyping J 2009; 15(4): 280-90.
[80]
Tian XY, Hou ZH, Li DC. Manufacturing method for continuous fiber reinforced composite lightweight structure. CN106980737 (2017).
[81]
Duan YG, Ding ZQ, Ming YK. Fiber reinforcement thermosetting resin base combined material 3D printing device. CN207240859 (2017).
[82]
Gomez JS, Dominguez RA, Martinez AB. Tool and process for manufacturing pieces of composite materials outside an autoclave. US20080023130 (2008).
[83]
Wang RX, Cui CR, Wu YT, Li Q. Multilayer compound eccentric-wear-preventing continuous sucker rod and manufacturing device and method thereof. CN104060944 (2014).
[84]
Li J, Xie YH, Lin JX, Li FY. 3D printing system based on multi-axis linkage control and machine vision measurement. CN106264796 (2016).
[85]
Tian XY, Yang CC, Cao Y, Tong ZQ, Zhang YY, Li DC. Multi-degree-of-freedom 3D printer of fiber reinforced composite material and printing method thereof. CN104097326 (2014).
[86]
Tian XY, Yang CC, Liu TF, Li DC. Space complex environment oriented multi-degree of freedom 3D printer and printing method. CN104626581 (2015).
[87]
Tian XY, Yang CC, Li DC, Wang JS. 3D printing head for continuous-fiber-reinforced intelligent composite material and use method of 3D printing head. CN104441658 (2014).
[88]
Dan BSC, Chen R, Hu B, Chen S, Gao YL, Dong DC. Liftable and high-temperature-resistant 3D printing sprayer device. CN105751513 (2016).
[89]
Li LQ, Shao GB, Xia ZF, Zhou DK, Song WP, Zhang GY. Ultrasound-enhancement-based 3D printing spray nozzle for continuous-fiber-reinforced composite material. CN106553341 (2016).
[90]
Tian XY, Liu TF, Yang CC, Li DC. Multi-stage wire feeding printing head for 3D printing of continuous fiber reinforced composite materials. CN105172144 (2015).
[91]
Lewis JA, Compton BG, Raney JR, Ober TJ. Threedimensional (3D) printed composite structure and 3D printable composite ink formulation. WO2015120429 (2016).


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [25 - 36]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2212797612666190117131659

Article Metrics

PDF: 50
HTML: 6
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1