Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing steeply; the number of diabetics has doubled over the past three decades. Surprisingly, the knowledge of type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) is still unclear to the researchers, scientist and medical practitioners, leading towards erroneous diagnosis, which is sometimes misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or more frequently type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review is aimed to outline recent information on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic management of T3cDM patients.
Methods: The literature related to T3cDM was thoroughly searched from the public domains and reviewed extensively to construct this article. Further, existing literature related to the other forms of diabetes are reviewed for projecting the differences among the different forms of diabetes. Detailed and updated information related to epidemiological evidence, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management are structured in this review.
Results: T3cDM is often misdiagnosed as T2DM due to the little knowledge in differentiating the between T2DM and T3cDM. The pathogenesis of T3cDM is explained which is often linked to the history of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer. Inflammation, fibrosis in pancreatic tissue leads to damage of both endocrine and exocrine function thus leading to insulin/glucagon insufficiency and pancreatic enzyme deficiency.
Conclusion: Future advancements should be accompanied by the establishment of a quick diagnostic tool through the understanding of potential biomarkers of the disease and newer treatments for better control of the diseased condition.