Comprehensive Review on Diabetes Associated Cardiovascular Complications - The Vitamin D Perspective

Author(s): Y. Durgarao, Poornima A. Manjrekar*, Prabha Adhikari, M. Chakrapani, M.S. Rukmini.

Journal Name: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders)

Volume 19 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Vitamin D, a steroid hormone is primarily known for its role in calcium and bone mineral homeostasis. Over the years, vitamin D has been implicated in various non-skeletal diseases. The extraskeletal phenomenon can be attributed to the presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in almost all cells and identification of 1-α hydroxylase in extrarenal tissues. The vitamin D deficiency (VDD) pandemic was globally reported with increasing evidence and paralleled the prevalence of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A dependent link was proposed between hypovitaminosis D glycemic status, insulin resistance and also the other major factors associated with type 2 diabetes leading to CVDs. Insulin resistance plays a central role in both type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome. These 2 disorders are associated with distinct etiologies including hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and significant vascular abnormalities that could lead to endothelial dysfunction. Evidence from randomised clinical trials and meta-analysis, however, yielded conflicting results. This review summarizes the role of vitamin D in the regulation of glucose homeostasis with an emphasis on insulin resistance, blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction and related cardiovascular diseases and also underline the plausible mechanisms for all the documented effects.

Keywords: Vitamin D, diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases.

[1]
Johansen, J.S.; Harris, A.K.; Rychly, D.J.; Ergul, A. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice. Cardiovasc. Diabetol., 2005, 4, 5.
[2]
Giacco, F.; Brownlee, M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Cir. Res., 2010, 107, 1058-1070.
[3]
Martin-Timon, I.; Sevillano-Collantes, C.; Segura-Galindo, A.; Del Canizo-Gomez, F.J. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength? World J. Diabetes, 2014, 5, 444-470.
[4]
Purohit, P. Cardiovascular diseases risk evaluation in newly diagnosed type-2 diabetics: An association of novel biomarkers apoproteins and C-peptide. Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2012, 16(6), 1061-1062.
[5]
Joergensen, C.; Gall, M.A.; Schmedes, A.; Tarnow, L.; Parving, H.H.; Rossing, P. Vitamin D levels and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33, 2238-2243.
[6]
Gupta, S.; Gudapati, R.; Gaurav, K.; Bhise, M. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: indian context. J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013, 5, 806-814.
[7]
Kibel, A.; Selthofer-Relatic, K.; Drenjancevic, I.; Bacun, T.; Bosnjak, I.; Kibel, D.; Gros, M. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J. Int. Med. Res., 2017, 45(6), 1901-1929.
[8]
Holman, R.R.; Paul, S.K.; Bethel, M.A.; Matthews, D.R.; Neil, W.H.A. 10-Year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med., 2008, 359, 1577-1589.
[9]
Duckworth, W.; Abraira, C.; Moritz, T.; Reda, D.; Emanuele, N.; Reaven, P.D.; Zieve, F.J.; Marks, J.; Davis, S.N.; Hayward, R.; Warren, S.R.; Goldman, S.; McCarren, M.; Vitek, M.E.; Henderson, W.G.; Huang, G.D. VADT Investigators. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. The NEJM N. Engl. J. Med., 2009, 360, 129-139.
[10]
Kirkman, M.S.; Mahmud, H.; Korytkowski, M.T. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 2018, 47(1), 81-96.
[11]
The action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes study group, effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. The NEJM, N. Engl. J. Med., 2008, 358, 2545-2559.
[12]
Haffner, S.J.; Cassells, H. Hyperglycemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am. J. Med., 2003, 115(Suppl. 8A), 6S-11S.
[13]
Skyler, J.S.; Bergenstal, R.; Bonow, R.O.; Buse, J.; Deedwania, P.; Gale, E.A.; Howard, B.V.; Kirkman, M.S.; Kosiborod, M.; Reaven, P.; Sherwin, R.S. American Diabetes Association; American College of Cardiology Foundation; American Heart Association. Intensive glycemic control and the prevention of cardiovascular events: Implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA diabetes trials: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a scientific statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2009, 119, 351-357.
[14]
Holick, M.F. Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med., 2007, 357, 266-281.
[15]
Dawson-Hughes, B.; Heaney, R.P.; Holick, M.F.; Lips, P.; Meunier, P.J.; Vieth, R. Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos. Int., 2005, 7, 713-716.
[16]
Grant, W.B.; Holick, M.F. Benefits and requirements of Vitamin D for optimal health. Altern. Med. Rev., 2005, 10, 94-111.
[17]
Hollis, B.W. Circulating 25-(OH) vitamin D levels indicative of Vitamin D insufficiency: Implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D. J. Nutr., 2005, 135, 317-322.
[18]
Harinarayan, C.V.; Joshi, S.R. Vitamin D status in India-its implications and remedial measures. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2009, 57, 40-48.
[19]
M arwaha, R.K.; Sripathy, G. Vitamin D and bone mineral density of healthy school children in northern India. Indian J. Med. Res., 2008, 127, 239-244.
[20]
Harinarayan, C.V. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in postmenopausal South Indian women. Osteoporos. Int., 2005, 16, 397-402.
[21]
Mithal, A.; Wahl, D.A.; Bonjour, J.P.; Burckhardt, P.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Eisman, J.A.; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G.; Josse, R.G.; Lips, P.; Morales-Torres, J. IOF Committee of Scientific Advisors (CSA) Nutrition Working Group. IOF Committee of Scientific Advisors (CSA) Nutrition Working Group. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos. Int., 2009, 20, 1807-1820.
[22]
Vishwanath, P.; Kulkarni, P.; Prashant, A. Vitamin D deficiency in India: Are we over concerned? Int. J. Health Allied Sci., 2014, 3, 77-78.
[23]
Holick, M.F. Vitamin D deficiency in 2010: health benefits of vitamin D and sunlight: A D-bate. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol., 2011, 2, 73-75.
[24]
Al Mheid, I.; Patel, R.S.; Tangpricha, V.; Quyyumi, A.A. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: Is the evidence solid? Eur. Heart J., 2013, 48, 3691-3698.
[25]
Chakhtoura, M.; Azar, S.T. The role of vitamin d deficiency in the incidence, progression, and complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Int. J. Endocrinol., 2013, 2013, 148673.
[26]
Targher, G; Bertolini, L; Padovani, R; Zenari, L; Scala, L; Cigolini, M; Arcaro, G. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and carotid artery intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients. Clin. Endocrinol., (Oxf). 2006, 65, 593-597.
[27]
Yiu, Y.F.; Chan, Y.H.; Yiu, K.H.; Siu, C.W.; Li, S.W.; Wong, L.Y.; Lee, S.W.; Tam, S.; Wong, E.W.; Cheung, B.M.; Tse, H.F. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2011, 96(5), E830-E835.
[28]
Rao Yalla Manjrekar, P.A.; Prabha Adhikari Arun, S.; Chakrapani, M.; Rukmini, M.S. Predominance and influence of vitamin D deficiency on glycemic and lipid indices in type 2 diabetes subjects: A case-control study. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res, 2017, 10(4), 177-180.
[29]
Palomer, X.; González-Clemente, J.M.; Blanco-Vaca, F.; Mauricio, D. Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes. Metab., 2008, 10, 185-197.
[30]
Wallace, I.R.; Wallace, H.J.; McKinley, M.C.; Bell, P.M.; Hunter, S.J. Vitamin D and insulin resistance. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.), 2016, 84(2), 159-171.
[31]
Modan, M.; Halkin, H.; Almog, S.; Lusky, A.; Eshkol, A.; Shefi, M.; Shitrit, A.; Fuchs, Z. Hyperinsulinemia. A link between hypertension obesity and glucose intolerance. J. Clin. Invest., 1985, 75, 809-817.
[32]
Dankner, R.; Chetrit, A.; Shanik, M.H.; Raz, I.; Roth, J. Basal-state hyperinsulinemia in healthy normoglycemic adults is predictive of type 2 diabetes over a 24-year follow-up: A preliminary report. Diabetes Care, 2009, 32, 1464-1466.
[33]
Shi, H.; Norman, A.W.; Okamura, W.H.; Sen, A.; Zemel, M.B. 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits uncoupling protein 2 expression in human adipocytes. FASEB J., 2002, 16, 1808-1810.
[34]
Draznin, B.; Lewis, D.; Houlder, N.; Sherman, N.; Adamo, M.; Garvey, W.T.; LeRoith, D.; Sussman, K. Mechanism of insulin resistance induced by sustained levels of cytosolic free calcium in rat adipocytes. Endocrinology, 1989, 125, 2341-2349.
[35]
Zhou, Q.G.; Hou, F.F.; Guo, Z.J.; Liang, M.; Wang, G.B.; Zhang, X. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D improved the free fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in cultured C2, C12 cells. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 2008, 24, 459-464.
[36]
Wright, D.C.; Hucker, K.A.; Holloszy, J.O.; Han, D.H. Ca2+ and AMPK both mediate stimulation of glucose transport by muscle contractions. Diabetes, 2004, 53, 330-335.
[37]
Mathieu, C. Vitamin D and diabetes: Where do we stand? Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2015, 108(2), 201-209.
[38]
Maestro, B.; Davila, N.; Carranza, M.C.; Calle, C. Identification of a vitamin D response element in the human insulin receptor gene promoter. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2003, 84, 223-230.
[39]
Mattila, C.; Knekt, P.; Mannisto, S.; Rissanen, H.; Laaksonen, M.A.; Montonen, J.; Reunanen, A. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2007, 30, 2569-2570.
[40]
Ozfirat, Z.; Chowdhury, T.A. Vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes. Postgrad. Med. J., 2010, 86, 18-25.
[41]
Gulseth, H.L.; Gjelstad, I.M.; Tierney, A.C.; Lovegrove, J.A.; Defoort, C.; Blaak, E.E.; Lopez-Miranda, J.; Kiec-Wilk, B.; Risérus, U.; Roche, H.M.; Drevon, C.A.; Birkeland, K.I. Serum vitamin D concentration does not predict insulin action or secretion in European subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33, 923-925.
[42]
Chiu, K.C.; Chu, A.; Go, V.L.; Saad, M.F. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 79, 820-825.
[43]
Scragg, R.; Sowers, M.; Bell, C. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care, 2004, 27, 2813-2818.
[44]
Forouhi, N.G.; Luan, J.; Cooper, A.; Boucher, B.J.; Wareham, N.J. Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000. Diabetes, 2008, 57, 2619-2625.
[45]
Liu, E.; Meigs, J.B.; Pittas, A.G.; McKeown, N.M.; Economos, C.D.; Booth, S.L.; Jacques, P.F. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with markers of the insulin resistant phenotype in nondiabetic adults. J. Nutr., 2009, 139, 329-334.
[46]
Zhao, G.; Ford, E.S.; Li, C. Associations of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with surrogate markers of insulin resistance among U.S. adults without physician-diagnosed diabetes: NHANES, 2003-2006. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33, 344-347.
[47]
Retnakaran, R.; Qi, Y.; Goran, M.I.; Hamilton, J.K. Evaluation of proposed oral disposition index measures in relation to the actual disposition index. Diabet. Med., 2009, 26, 1198-1203.
[48]
Kayaniyil, S.; Vieth, R.; Retnakaran, R.; Knight, J.A.; Qi, Y.; Gerstein, H.C.; Perkins, B.A.; Harris, S.B.; Zinman, B.; Hanley, A.J. Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33(6), 1379-1381.
[49]
de las Heras, J.; Rajakumar, K.; Lee, S.; Bacha, F.; Holick, M.F.; Arslanian, S.A. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in obese youth across the spectrum of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2013, 36(7), 2048-2053.
[50]
Kamycheva, E.; Jorde, R.; Figenschau, Y.; Haug, E. Insulin sensitivity in subjects with secondary hyperparathyroidism and the effect of a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level on insulin sensitivity. J. Endocrinol. Invest., 2007, 30(2), 126-132.
[51]
Muscogiuri, G.; Sorice, G.P.; Prioletta, A.; Policola, C.; Della Casa, S.; Pontecorvi, A.; Giaccari, A. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration correlates with insulin-sensitivity and BMI in obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2010, 18(10), 1906-1910.
[52]
Rajakumar, K.; de las Heras, J.; Lee, S.; Holick, M.F.; Arslanian, S.A. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in black and white youth. Diabetes Care, 2012, 35(3), 627-633.
[53]
Ashraf, A.; Alvarez, J.; Saenz, K.; Gower, B.; McCormick, K.; Franklin, F. Threshold for effects of vitamin D deficiency on glucose metabolism in obese female African-American adolescents. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2009, 94(9), 3200-3206.
[54]
Maghbooli, Z.; Hossein-Nezhad, A.; Karimi, F.; Shafaei, A.R.; Larijani, B. Correlation between vitamin D3 deficiency and insulin resistance in pregnancy. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 2008, 24(1), 27-32.
[55]
Delvin, E.E.; Lambert, M.; Levy, E.; O’Loughlin, J.; Mark, S.; Gray-Donald, K.; Paradis, G. Vitamin D status is modestly associated with glycemia and indicators of lipid metabolism in French-Canadian children and adolescents. J. Nutr., 2010, 140(5), 987-991.
[56]
Jorde, R.; Sneve, M.; Torjesen, P.; Figenschau, Y. No improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects after supplementation with vitamin D3 for 1 year. J. Intern. Med., 2010, 267(5), 462-472.
[57]
Orwoll, E.; Riddle, M.; Prince, M. Effects of vitamin D on insulin and glucagon secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1994, 59(5), 1083-1087.
[58]
Alemzadeh, R.; Kichler, J.; Babar, G.; Calhoun, M. Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: Relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism, 2008, 57, 183-191.
[59]
Kositsawat, J.; Freeman, V.L.; Gerber, B.S.; Geraci, S. Association of A1C levels with vitamin D status in U.S. adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33, 1236-1238.
[60]
Cigolini, M.; Iagulli, M.P.; Miconi, V.; Galiotto, M.; Lombardi, S.; Targher, G. Serum 25hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and prevalence of cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care, 2006, 29, 722-724.
[61]
Schwalfenberg, G. Vitamin D and diabetes: Improvement of glycemic control with vitamin D3 repletion. Can. Fam. Physician, 2008, 54, 864-866.
[62]
Jorde, R.; Figenschau, Y. Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25hydroxyvitamin D levels. Eur. J. Nutr., 2009, 48, 349-354.
[63]
Patel, P.; Poretsky, L.; Liao, E. Lack of the effect of subtherapeutic vitamin D treatment on glycemic and lipid parameters in type 2 diabetes: A pilot prospective randomized trial. J. Diabetes, 2010, 2, 36-40.
[64]
Tahrani, A.A.; Ball, A.; Shepherd, L.; Rahim, A.; Jones, A.F.; Bates, A. The prevalence of vitamin D abnormalities in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the UK. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2010, 64(3), 351-355.
[65]
Ghavamzadeh, S.; Mobasseri, M.; Mahdavi, R. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on adiposity, blood glycated hemoglobin, serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Prev. Med., 2014, 5, 1091-1099.
[66]
Krul-Poel, Y.H.; Ter Wee, M.M.; Lips, P.; Simsek, S. Management of endocrine disease: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2017, 176(1), R1-R14.
[67]
Nigel Haroon, N.; Anton, A.; John, J.; Mittal, M. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of interventional studies. J. Diabetes Metab. Disord., 2015, 12(14), 3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0130-9]
[68]
Seida, J.C.; Mitri, J.; Colmers, I.N.; Majumdar, S.R.; Davidson, M.B.; Edwards, A.L.; Hanley, D.A.; Pittas, A.G.; Tjosvold, L.; Johnson, J.A. Clinical review: Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2014, 99(10), 3551-3560.
[69]
Lee, C.J.; Iyer, G.; Liu, Y.; Kalyani, R.R.; Bamba, N.D.; Ligon, C.B.; Varma, S.; Mathioudakis, N. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. J. Diabetes Complications, 2017, 31(7), 1115-1126.
[70]
Al-Sofiani, M.E.; Jammah, A.; Racz, M.; Khawaja, R.A.; Hasanato, R.; El-Fawal, H.A.; Mousa, S.A.; Mason, D.L. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glucose control and inflammatory response in type ii diabetes: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2015, 13(1), e22604.
[71]
Gulseth, H.L.; Wium, C.; Angel, K.; Eriksen, E.F.; Birkeland, K.I. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in subjects with type 2 diabetes and vitamin D deficiency: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 2017, 40(7), 872-878.
[72]
Wagner, H.; Alvarsson, M.; Mannheimer, B.; Degerblad, M.; Ostenson, C.G. No effect of high dose vitamin D treatment on b-cell function, insulin sensitivity, or glucose homeostasis in subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care, 2016, 39, 345-352.
[73]
Mitri, J.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Hu, F.B.; Pittas, A.G. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2011, 94, 486-494.
[74]
Sugden, J.A.; Davies, J.I.; Witham, M.D.; Morris, A.D.; Struthers, A.D. Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitamin D levels. Diabet. Med., 2008, 25(3), 320-325.
[75]
Talaei, A.; Mohammadi, M.; Adgi, Z. The effect of vitamin D on insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetol. Metab. Syndr., 2013, 5, 8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1758-5996-5-8]
[76]
Gysemans, C.A.; Cardozo, A.K.; Callewaert, H.; Giulietti, A.; Hulshagen, L.; Bouillon, R.; Eizirik, D.L.; Mathieu, C. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates expression of chemokines and cytokines in pancreatic islets: implications for prevention of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Endocrinology, 2005, 146(4), 1956-1964.
[77]
Park, S.; Kim, D.S.; Kang, S. Vitamin D deficiency impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increases insulin resistance by reducing PPAR-γ expression in nonobese Type 2 diabetic rats. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2016, 27, 257-265.
[78]
Bikle, D.D. Vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action and clinical applications. Chem. Biol., 2014, 21, 319-329.
[79]
Bikle, D.D. The Endocrine Society centennial: Extrarenal production of 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D is now proven. Endocrinology, 2016, 157, 1717-1718.
[80]
Christakos, S.; Dhawan, P.; Benn, B.; Porta, A.; Hediger, M.; Oh, G.T.; Jeung, E.B.; Zhong, Y.; Ajibade, D.; Dhawan, K.; Joshi, S.; Vitamin, D. Molecular mechanism of action. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2007, 1116, 340-348.
[81]
Shoback, D.; Sellmeyer, D.; Bikle, D.D. Metabolic bone disease.Greenspan’s Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, 9th ed; Gardner, D.G.; Shoback, D., Eds.; McGraw Hill Lange, 2011, pp. 234-241.
[82]
Maddaloni, E.; Cavallari, I.; Napoli, N.; Conte, C. Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus. Front. Horm. Res., 2018, 50, 161-176.
[83]
Salum, E.; Kals, J.; Kampus, P.; Salum, T.; Zilmer, K.; Aunapuu, M.; Arend, A.; Eha, J.; Zilmer, M. Vitamin D reduces deposition of advanced glycation end-products in the aortic wall and systemic oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013, 100, 243-249.
[84]
Mark, A.B.; Poulsen, M.W.; Andersen, S.; Andersen, J.M.; Bak, M.J.; Ritz, C.; Holst, J.J.; Nielsen, J.; de Courten, B.; Dragsted, L.O.; Bügel, S.G. Consumption of a diet low in advanced glycation end products for 4 weeks improves insulin sensitivity in overweight women. Diabetes Care, 2014, 37, 88-95.
[85]
Afzal, S.; Brondum-Jacobsen, P. Bojesen.; S.E.; Nordestgaard, B.G. Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and increased mortality: Mendelian randomisation analysis in three large cohorts. BMJ, 2014, 49, g6330.
[86]
Wang, T.J.; Zhang, F.; Richards, J.B.; Kestenbaum, B.; van Meurs, J.B.; Berry, D.; Kiel, D.P.; Streeten, E.A.; Ohlsson, C.; Koller, D.L.; Peltonen, L.; Cooper, J.D.; O’Reilly, P.F.; Houston, D.K.; Glazer, N.L.; Vandenput, L.; Peacock, M.; Shi, J.; Rivadeneira, F.; McCarthy, M.I.; Anneli, P.; de Boer, I.H.; Mangino, M.; Kato, B.; Smyth, D.J.; Booth, S.L.; Jacques, P.F.; Burke, G.L.; Goodarzi, M.; Cheung, C.L.; Wolf, M.; Rice, K.; Goltzman, D.; Hidiroglou, N.; Ladouceur, M.; Wareham, N.J.; Hocking, L.J.; Hart, D.; Arden, N.K.; Cooper, C.; Malik, S.; Fraser, W.D.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Zhai, G.; Macdonald, H.M.; Forouhi, N.G.; Loos, R.J.; Reid, D.M.; Hakim, A.; Dennison, E.; Liu, Y.; Power, C.; Stevens, H.E.; Jaana, L.; Vasan, R.S.; Soranzo, N.; Bojunga, J.; Psaty, B.M.; Lorentzon, M.; Foroud, T.; Harris, T.B.; Hofman, A.; Jansson, J.O.; Cauley, J.A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Gibson, Q.; Järvelin, M.R.; Karasik, D.; Siscovick, D.S.; Econs, M.J.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Florez, J.C.; Todd, J.A.; Dupuis, J.; Hyppönen, E.; Spector, T.D. Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: A genome-wide association study. Lancet, 2010, 376, 180-188.
[87]
Saternus, R.; Pilz, S.; Graber, S.; Kleber, M.; Marz, W.; Vogt, T.; Reichrath, J. A closer look at evolution: Variants (SNPs) of genes involved in skin pigmentation, including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, are associated With 25(OH)D serum concentration. Endocrinology, 2015, 1, 39-47.
[88]
Afzal, S.; Brondum-Jacobsen, P.; Bojesen, S.E.; Nordestgaard, B.G. Vitamin D concentration, obesity, and risk of diabetes: A mendelian randomisation study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol., 2014, 2, 298-306.
[89]
Cooper, J.D.; Smyth, D.J.; Walker, N.M.; Stevens, H.; Burren, O.S.; Wallace, C.; Greissl, C.; Ramos-Lopez, E.; Hyppönen, E.; Dunger, D.B.; Spector, T.D.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Wang, T.J.; Badenhoop, K.; Todd, J.A. Inherited variation in vitamin D genes is associated with predisposition to autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 2011, 60, 1624-1631.
[90]
Engelman, C.D.; Meyers, K.J.; Iyengar, S.K.; Liu, Z.; Karki, C.K.; Igo, R.P. Jr, Truitt, B.; Robinson, J.; Sarto, G.E.; Wallace, R.; Blodi, B.A.; Klein, M.L.; Tinker, L.; LeBlanc, E.S.; Jackson, R.D.; Song, Y.; Manson, J.E.; Mares, J.A.; Millen, A.E. Vitamin D intake and season modify the effects of the GC and CYP2R1 genes on 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. J. Nutr., 2013, 143, 17-26.
[91]
Pittas, A.G.; Lau, J.; Hu, F.B.; Dawson-Hughes, B. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2007, 92, 2017-2029.
[92]
Ogunkolade, B.W.; Boucher, B.J.; Prahl, J.M.; Bustin, S.A.; Burrin, J.M.; Noonan, K.; North, B.V.; Mannan, N.; McDermott, M.F.; DeLuca, H.F.; Hitman, G.A. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and VDR protein levels in relation to vitamin D status, insulin secretory capacity, and VDR genotype in Bangladeshi Asians. Diabetes, 2002, 51, 2294-2300.
[93]
Speer, G.; Cseh, K.; Winkler, G.; Vargha, P.; Braun, E.; Takacs, I.; Lakatos, P. Vitamin D and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus and in android type obesity. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2001, 144, 385-389.
[94]
Jain, R.; von Hurst, P.R.; Stonehouse, W.; Love, D.R.; Higgins, C.M.; Coad, J. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance and response to vitamin D. Metabolism, 2012, 61, 293-301.
[95]
Autier, P.; Boniol, M.; Pizot, C.; Mullie, P. Vitamin D status and ill health: A systematic review. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol., 2014, 2(1), 76-89.
[96]
Freeman, D.J.; Norrie, J.; Caslake, M.J.; Gaw, A.; Ford, I.; Lowe, G.D.; O’Reilly, D.S.; Packard, C.J.; Sattar, N. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Creactive protein is an independent predictor of risk for the development of diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Diabetes, 2002, 51, 1596-1600.
[97]
Esser, N. LegrandPoels, S.; Piette, J.; Scheen, A.J.; Paquot, N. Inflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2014, 105, 141-150.
[98]
Meshkani, R.; Adeli, K. Hepatic insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Clin. Biochem., 2009, 42, 1331-1346.
[99]
Akbarzadeh, M.; Eftekhari, M.H.; Dabbaghmanesh, M.H.; Hasanzadeh, J.; Bakhshayeshkaram, M. Serum IL-18 and hsCRP correlate with insulin resistance without the effect of calcitriol treatment on type 2 diabetes. Iran. J. Immunol., 2013, 10, 167-176.
[100]
Van Greevenbroek, M.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D. Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Causes and consequences. Neth. J. Med., 2013, 71, 174-187.
[101]
Sung, J.W.; Lee, S.H.; Byrne, C.D.; Chung, P.W.; Won, Y.S.; Sung, K.C. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium in subjects with normal blood pressure but not in subjects with hypertension. Arch. Med. Res., 2014, 45, 170-176.
[102]
Rudolf, J.; Lewandrowski, K.B. Cholesterol, lipoproteins, highsensitivity C-reactive protein, and other risk factors for atherosclerosis. Clin. Lab. Med., 2014, 34, 113-127.
[103]
Kolb, H.; Mandrup-Poulsen, T. An immune origin of type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia, 2005, 48, 1038-1050.
[104]
Peraldi, P.; Spiegelman, B. TNF-alpha and insulin resistance: Summary and future prospects. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 1998, 182, 169-175.
[105]
Lemire, J.M. Immunomodulatory actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 1995, 53, 599-602.
[106]
Mauricio, D.; Mandrup-Poulsen, T.; Nerup, J. Vitamin D analogues in insulindependent diabetes mellitus and other autoimmune diseases: A therapeutic perspective. Diabetes Metab. Rev., 1996, 12, 57-68.
[107]
Snijder, M.B.; Lips, P.; Seidell, J.C.; Visser, M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Dekker, J.M.; van Dam, R.M. Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels in relation to blood pressure: A population-based study in older men and women. J. Intern. Med., 2007, 261, 558-565.
[108]
Tomaschitz, A.; Ritz, E.; Pieske, B.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Kienreich, K.; Horina, J.H.; Drechsler, C.; März, W.; Ofner, M.; Pieber, T.R.; Pilz, S. Aldosterone and parathyroid hormone: A precarious couple for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc. Res., 2012, 94, 10-19.
[109]
Tomaschitz, A.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Pieske, B.; Verheyen, N.; Amrein, K.; Ritz, E.; Kienreich, K.; Horina, J.H.; Schmidt, A.; Kraigher-Krainer, E.; Colantonio, C.; Meinitzer, A.; Pilz, S. Effect of eplerenone on parathyroid hormone levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Endocr. Disord., 2012, 12, 19.
[110]
Kunutsor, S.K.; Apekey, T.A.; Steur, M. Vitamin D and risk of future hypertension: Meta-analysis of 283,537 participants. Eur. J. Epidemiol., 2013, 28, 205-221.
[111]
Larsen, T.; Mose, F.H.; Bech, J.N.; Hansen, A.B.; Pedersen, E.B. Effect of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter months in patients with hypertension: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Hypertens., 2012, 25, 1215-1222.
[112]
Forman, J.P.; Scott, J.B.; Ng, K.; Drake, B.F.; Suarez, E.G.; Hayden, D.L.; Bennett, G.G.; Chandler, P.D.; Hollis, B.W.; Emmons, K.M.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Chan, A.T. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure in blacks. Hypertension, 2013, 61, 779-785.
[113]
Wood, A.D.; Secombes, K.R.; Thies, F.; Aucott, L.; Black, A.J.; Mavroeidi, A.; Simpson, W.G.; Fraser, W.D.; Reid, D.M.; Macdonald, H.M. Vitamin D3 supplementation has no effect on conventional cardiovascular risk factors: A parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2012, 97, 3557-3568.
[114]
Florentin, M.; Elisaf, M.S.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Liberopoulos, E.N. Vitamin D and metabolic syndrome: Is there a link? Curr. Pharm. Des., 2010, 16, 3417-3434.
[115]
Stefenelli, T.; Abela, C.; Frank, H.; Koller-Strametz, J.; Globits, S.; Bergler-Klein, J.; Niederle, B. Cardiac abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: implications for follow-up. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1997, 82, 106-112.
[116]
Lavie, C.J.; Lee, J.H.; Milani, R.V. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease will it live up to its hype? J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2011, 58, 1547-1556.
[117]
Scragg, R.; Sowers, M.; Bell, C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am. J. Hypertens., 2007, 20, 713-719.
[118]
Forman, J.P.; Giovannucci, E.; Holmes, M.D.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A.; Tworoger, S.S.; Willett, W.C.; Curhan, G.C. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension. Hypertension, 2007, 49, 1063-1069.
[119]
Margolis, K.L.; Ray, R.M.; Van Horn, L.; Manson, J.E.; Allison, M.A.; Black, H.R.; Beresford, S.A.; Connelly, S.A.; Curb, J.D.; Grimm, R.H. Jr, Kotchen, T.A.; Kuller, L.H.; Wassertheil-Smoller, S.; Thomson, C.A.; Torner, J.C.; Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. Hypertension, 2008, 52, 847-855.
[120]
Pfeifer, M.; Begerow, B.; Minne, H.W.; Nachtigall, D.; Hansen, C. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001, 86, 1633-1637.
[121]
Witham, M.D.; Nadir, M.A.; Struthers, A.D. Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Hypertens., 2009, 27, 1948-1954.
[122]
Beveridge, L.A.; Struthers, A.D.; Khan, F.; Jorde, R.; Scragg, R.; Macdonald, H.M.; Alvarez, J.A.; Boxer, R.S.; Dalbeni, A.; Gepner, A.D.; Isbel, N.M.; Larsen, T.; Nagpal, J.; Petchey, W.G.; Stricker, H.; Strobel, F.; Tangpricha, V.; Toxqui, L.; Vaquero, M.P.; Wamberg, L.; Zittermann, A.; Witham, M.D. D-PRESSURE Collaboration. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis incorporating individual patient data. JAMA Intern. Med., 2015, 175, 745-754.
[123]
Enas, E.A.; Chacko, V.; Pazhoor, S.G.; Chennikkara, H.; Devarapalli, H.P. Dyslipidemia in South Asian patients. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., 2007, 9, 367-374.
[124]
Karthikeyan, G.; Teo, K.K.; Islam, S.; McQueen, M.J.; Pais, P.; Wang, X.; Sato, H.; Lang, C.C.; Sitthi-Amorn, C.; Pandey, M.R.; Kazmi, K.; Sanderson, J.E.; Yusuf, S. Lipid profile, plasma apolipoproteins, and risk of a first myocardial infarction among Asians: An analysis from the INTERHEART Study. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2009, 53, 244-253.
[125]
Islam, A.K.; Majumder, A.A. Coronary artery disease in Bangladesh: A review. Indian Heart J., 2013, 65(4), 424-435.
[126]
Enas, E.A.; Senthilkumar, A.; Chennikkara, H.; Bjurlin, M.A. Prudent diet and preventive nutrition from paediatrics to geriatrics: Current knowledge and practical recommendations. Indian Heart J., 2003, 55, 310e338.
[127]
John, W.G.; Noonan, K.; Mannan, N.; Boucher, B.J. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with reductions in serum apolipoprotein A-I but not with fasting lipids in British Bangladeshis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2005, 82, 517-522.
[128]
Goldberg, I.J. Clinical review: Diabetic dyslipidemia: Causes and consequences. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001, 86, 965-971.
[129]
Haffner, S.M.; Mykkanen, L.; Festa, A.; Burke, J.P.; Stern, M.P. Insulin-resistant prediabetic subjects have more atherogenic risk factors than insulin-sensitive prediabetic subjects: Implications for preventing coronary heart disease during the prediabetic state. Circulation, 2000, 101, 975-980.
[130]
Gordon, D.J.; Rifkind, B.M. High-density lipoprotein-the clinical implications of recent studies. N. Engl. J. Med., 1989, 321, 1311-1316.
[131]
Austin, M.A.; Breslow, J.L.; Hennekens, C.H.; Buring, J.E.; Willett, W.C.; Krauss, R.M. Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA, 1988, 260, 1917-1921.
[132]
Jaleel, A.; Henderson, G.C.; Madden, B.J.; Klaus, K.A.; Morse, D.M.; Gopala, S.; Nair, K.S. Identification of de novo synthesized and relatively older proteins: Accelerated oxidative damage to de novo synthesized apolipoprotein a-1 in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 2010, 59, 2366-2374.
[133]
Mastorikou, M.; Mackness, M.; Mackness, B. Defective metabolism of oxidized phospholipid by HDL from people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 2006, 55, 3099-3103.
[134]
Taskinen, M.R. Lipoprotein lipase in diabetes. Diabetes Metab. Rev., 1987, 3, 551-570.
[135]
Botella-Carretero, J.I.; Alvarez-Blasco, F.; Villafruela, J.J.; Balsa, J.A.; Vazquez, C.; Escobar-Morreale, H.F. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity. Clin. Nutr., 2007, 26, 573-580.
[136]
Lu, L.; Yu, Z.; Pan, A.; Hu, F.B.; Franco, O.H.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Yang, X.; Chen, Y.; Lin, X. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Diabetes Care, 2009, 32, 1278-1283.
[137]
Vu, D.; Ong, J.M.; Clemens, T.L.; Kern, P.A. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D induces lipoprotein lipase expression in 3 T3-L1 cells in association with adipocyte differentiation. Endocrinology, 1996, 137, 1540-1544.
[138]
Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Wang, M.; Ning, H.A.L.; Li, Y.; Sun, C. Lipoprotein lipase links vitamin D, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Cardiovasc. Diabetol., 2013, 12, 17.
[139]
Allen, S.; Khan, S.; Tam, S.P.; Koschinsky, M.; Taylor, P.; Yacoub, M. Expression of adhesion molecules by lp(a): A potential novel mechanism for its atherogenicity. FASEB J., 1998, 12, 1765-1776.
[140]
Kang, C.; Dominguez, M.; Loyau, S.; Miyata, T.; Durlach, V.; Angles-Cano, E. Lp(a) particles mould fibrin-binding properties of apo(a) in a size-dependent manner: A study with different-length recombinant apo(a), native Lp(a), and monoclonal antibody. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2002, 22, 1232-1238.
[141]
Tsimikas, S.; Tsironis, L.D.; Tselepis, A.D. New insights into the role of lipoprotein (a)-associated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2007, 27, 2094-2099.
[142]
Nordestgaard, B.G.; Chapman, M.J.; Ray, K.; Boren, J.; Andreotti, F.; Watts, G.F.; Ginsberg, H.; Amarenco, P.; Catapano, A.; Descamps, O.S.; Fisher, E.; Kovanen, P.T.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Lesnik, P.; Masana, L.; Reiner, Z.; Taskinen, M.R.; Tokgözoglu, L.; Tybjærg-Hansen, A. European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel. Lipoprotein (a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status. Eur. Heart J., 2010, 31, 2844-2853.
[143]
Fernandez, M.L.; Densie Webb, D. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio as a valuable tool to evaluate coronary heart disease risk. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2008, 27, 1-5.
[144]
Jorde, R.; Grimnes, G. Vitamin D and metabolic health with special reference to the effect of vitamin D on serum lipids. Prog. Lipid Res., 2011, 50, 303-312.
[145]
Jorde, R.; Figenschau, Y.; Hutchinson, M.; Emaus, N.; Grimnes, G. High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with a favourable serum lipid profile. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2010, 64, 1457-1464.
[146]
Al-Daghri, N.M.; Alkharfy, K.M.; Al-Othman, A.; El-Kholie, E.; Moharram, O.; Alokail, M.S.; Al-Saleh, Y.; Sabico, S.; Kumar, S.; Chrousos, G.P. Vitamin D supplementation as an adjuvant therapy for patients with T2DM: An 18-month prospective interventional study. Cardiovasc. Diabetol., 2012, 11, 85.
[147]
Ramiro-Lozano, J.M.; Calvo-Romero, J.M. Effects on the lipid profile of supplementation with vitamin D in type 2 diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency. Ther. Adv. Endocrinol. Metab., 2015, 6, 245-248.
[148]
Kane, L.; Moore, K.; Lutjohann, D.; Bikle, D.; Schwartz, J.B. Vitamin D3 effects on lipids differ in statin and non-statin-treated humans: Superiority of free 25-OH D levels in detecting relationships. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013, 98, 4400-4409.
[149]
Ponda, M.P.; Dowd, K.; Finkelstein, D.; Holt, P.R.; Breslow, J.L. The short-term effects of vitamin D repletion on cholesterol: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2012, 32, 2510-2515.
[150]
Querfeld, U.; Hoffmann, M.M.; Klaus, G.; Eifinger, F.; Ackerschott, M.; Michalk, D.; Kern, P.A. Antagonistic effects of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone on lipoprotein lipase in cultured adipocytes. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 1999, 10, 2158-2164.
[151]
Lind, L.; Hanni, A.; Lithell, H.; Hvarfner, A.; Sorensen, O.H.; Ljunghall, S. Vitamin D is related to blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men. Am. J. Hypertens., 1995, 8, 894-901.
[152]
Gannage-Yared, M.H.; Chedid, R.; Khalife, S.; Azzi, E. Zoghbi, F.; Halaby, G. Vitamin D in relation to metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin in a young Middle-Eastern population. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2009, 160, 965-971.
[153]
Carbone, L.D.; Rosenberg, E.W.; Tolley, E.A.; Holick, M.F.; Hughes, T.A.; Watsky, M.A.; Barrow, K.D.; Chen, T.C.; Wilkin, N.K.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Dowdy, J.C.; Sayre, R.M.; Weber, K.T. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, cholesterol, and ultraviolet irradiation. Metabolism, 2008, 57, 741-748.
[154]
Munoz-Aguirre, P.; Flores, M.; Macias, N.; Quezada, A.D.; Denova-Gutierrez, E.; Salmeron, J. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids in postmenopausal women with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Clin. Nutr., 2015, 34, 799-804.
[155]
Saedisomeolia, A.; Taheri, E.; Djalali, M.; Moghadam, A.M.; Qorbani, M. Association between serum level of vitamin D and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients in Iran. J. Diabetes Metab. Disord., 2014, 13, 7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-13-7]
[156]
Chaudhuri, J.R.; Mridula, K.R.; Anamika, A.; Boddu, D.B.; Misra, P.K.; Lingaiah, A.; Balaraju, B.; Bandaru, V.S. Deficiency of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and dyslipidemia in Indian subjects. J. Lipids, 2013, 2013, 623420.
[157]
Rajpathak, S.N.; Xue, X.; Wassertheil-Smoller, S.; Van Horn, L.; Robinson, J.G.; Liu, S.; Allison, M.; Martin, L.W.; Ho, G.Y.; Rohan, T.E. Effect of 5 y of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on change in circulating lipids: results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2010, 91, 894-899.
[158]
Zittermann, A.; Frisch, S.; Berthold, H.K.; Gotting, C.; Kuhn, J.; Kleesiek, K.; Stehle, P.; Koertke, H.; Koerfer, R. Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2009, 89, 1321-1327.
[159]
Parker, J.; Hashmi, O.; Dutton, D.; Mavrodaris, A.; Stranges, S.; Kandala, N.B.; Clarke, A.; Franco, O.H. Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas, 2010, 65, 225-236.
[160]
Flores, M. A role of vitamin D in low-intensity chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus? Nutr. Res. Rev., 2005, 18, 175e82.
[161]
Wang, C. Role of Vitamin D in cardiometabolic diseases. J. Diabetes Res., 2013, 2013, 43934.
[162]
Mathieu, C.; Gysemans, C.; Giulietti, A.; Bouillon, R. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia, 2005, 48, 1247-1257.
[163]
Riserus, U.; Sprecher, D.; Johnson, T.; Olson, E.; Hirschberg, S.; Liu, A.; Fang, Z.; Hegde, P.; Richards, D.; Sarov-Blat, L.; Strum, J.C.; Basu, S.; Cheeseman, J.; Fielding, B.A.; Humphreys, S.M.; Danoff, T.; Moore, N.R.; Murgatroyd, P.; O’Rahilly, S.; Sutton, P.; Willson, T.; Hassall, D.; Frayn, K.N.; Karpe, F. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta promotes reversal of multiple metabolic abnormalities, reduces oxidative stress, and increases fatty acid oxidation in moderately obese men. Diabetes, 2008, 57, 332-339.
[164]
Zemel, M.B. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2002, 21, 146S-151S.
[165]
He, Y.H.; Song, Y.; Liao, X.L.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Alima, L.G.
Li, Y.; Sun, C.H. The calcium-sensing receptor affects fat accumulation via effects on antilipolytic pathways in adipose tissue of rats fed low-calcium diets. J. Nutr., 2011, 141, 1938-1946.
[166]
Grimes, D.S.; Hindle, E.; Dyer, T. Sunlight, cholesterol and coronary heart disease. QJM, 1996, 89, 579-589.
[167]
Choi, H.S.; Kim, K.A.; Lim, C.Y.; Rhee, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.C.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, K.J.; Rhee, Y.; Lim, S.K. Low serum vitamin D is associated with a high risk of diabetes in Korean adults. J. Nutr., 2011, 141, 1524-1528.
[168]
Kohno, M.; Takahashi, S.; Oida, K.; Suzuki, J.; Tamai, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakai, T. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces very low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression in HL-60 cells in association with monocytic differentiation. Atherosclerosis, 1997, 133, 45-49.
[169]
Ginsberg, H.N.; Zhang, Y.L.; Hernandez-Ono, A. Regulation of plasma triglycerides in insulin resistance and diabetes. Arch. Med. Res., 2005, 36, 232-240.
[170]
Ceriello, A.; Taboga, C.; Tonutti, L.; Quagliaro, L.; Piconi, L.; Bais, B.; Da Ros, R.; Motz, E. Evidence for an independent and cumulative effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress generation: Effects of short-and long-term simvastatin treatment. Circulation, 2002, 106, 1211-1218.
[171]
Morishita, R.; Nakamura, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Aoki, M.; Moriguchi, A.; Kida, I.; Yo, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Higaki, J.; Ogihara, T. Potential role of an endothelium-specific growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, on endothelial damage in diabetes. Diabetes, 1997, 46, 138-142.
[172]
Tousoulis, D.; Papageorgiou, N.; Androulakis, E.; Siasos, G.; Latsios, G.; Tentolouris, K.; Stefanadis, C. Diabetes mellitus-associated vascular impairment: A novel circulating biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2013, 62, 667-676.
[173]
Roberts, A.C.; Porter, K.E. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Diab. Vasc. Dis. Res., 2013, 10, 472-482.
[174]
Sena, C.M.; Pereira, A.M.; Seic, A.R. Endothelial dysfunction-a major mediator of diabetic vascular disease. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2013, 1832, 2216-2231.
[175]
Bagi, Z.; Erdei, N.; Papp, Z.; Edes, I.; Koller, A. Up-regulation of vascular cyclooxygenase-2 in diabetes mellitus. Pharmacol. Rep., 2006, 58(Suppl.), 52-56.
[176]
Davel, A.P.; Wenceslau, C.F.; Akamine, E.H.; Xavier, F.E.; Couto, G.K.; Oliveira, H.T.; Rossoni, L.V. Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases: An update. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2011, 44, 920-932.
[177]
Yeboah, J.; Folsom, A.R.; Burke, G.L.; Johnson, C.; Polak, J.F.; Post, W.; Lima, J.A.; Crouse, J.R.; Herrington, D.M. Predictive value of brachial flow-mediated dilation for incident cardiovascular events in a population-based study: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circulation, 2009, 120, 502-509.
[178]
Kim, J.A.; Montagnani, M.; Koh, K.K.; Quon, M.J. Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. Circulation, 2006, 113, 1888-1904.
[179]
Kibel, A.; Selthofer-Relatic, K.; Drenjancevic, I.; Bacun, T.; Bosnjak, I.; Kibel, D.; Gros, M. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J. Int. Med. Res., 2017, 45(6), 1901-1929.
[180]
Cooke, C.L.; Davidge, S.T. Peroxynitrite increases iNOS through NF-kappaB and decreases prostacyclin synthase in endothelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol., 2002, 282, C395-C402.
[181]
Cai, H.; Harrison, D.G. Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: The role of oxidant stress. Circ. Res., 2000, 87, 840-844.
[182]
De Caterina, R. Endothelial dysfunctions: Common denominators in vascular disease. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 2000, 3, 453-467.
[183]
Chen, J.; Song, M.; Yu, S.; Gao, P.; Yu, Y.; Wang, H.; Huang, L. Advanced glycation endproducts alter functions and promote apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells through receptor for advanced glycation endproducts mediate overexpression of cell oxidant stress. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2010, 335, 137-146.
[184]
Riek, A.E.; Oh, J.; Darwech, I.; Moynihan, C.E.; Bruchas, R.R.; Bernal-Mizrachi, C. 25(OH) vitamin D suppresses macrophage adhesion and migration by downregulation of ER stress and scavenger receptor A1 in type 2 diabetes. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2014, (Pt A), 172-179.
[185]
Riek, A.E.; Oh, J.; Sprague, J.E.; Timpson, A.; de las Fuentes, L.; Bernal-Mizrachi, L.; Schechtman, K.B.; Bernal-Mizrachi, C. Vitamin D suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes an antiatherogenic monocyte/macrophage phenotype in type 2 diabetic patients. J. Biol. Chem., 2012, 287(46), 38482-38494.
[186]
Yiu, Y.F.; Chan, Y.H.; Yiu, K.H.; Siu, C.W.; Li, S.W.; Wong, L.Y.; Lee, S.W.; Tam, S.; Wong, E.W.; Cheung, B.M.; Tse, H.F. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.,, 2011, 96(5), E830 5.
[187]
Patel, P.; Abate, N. Body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Nutrients, 2013, 5, 2019-2027.
[188]
Snel, M.; Jonker, J.T.; Schoones, J.; Lamb, H.; de Roos, A.; Pijl, H.; Smit, J.W.; Meinders, A.E.; Jazet, I.M. Ectopic fat and insulin resistance: pathophysiology and effect of diet and lifestyle interventions. Int. J. Endocrinol., 2012, 2012, 983814.
[189]
Blum, M.; Dolnikowski, G.; Seyoum, E.; Harris, S.S.; Booth, S.L.; Peterson, J.; Saltzman, E.; Dawson-Hughes, B. Vitamin D(3) in fat tissue. Endocrine, 2008, 33, 90-94.
[190]
Earthman, C.P.; Beckman, L.M.; Masodkar, K.; Sibley, S.D. The link between obesity and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: considerations and implications. Int. J. Obes.(Lond),, 2011, 36, 387-396.
[191]
Ford, E.S.; Giles, W.H.; Dietz, W.H. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA, 2002, 287, 356-359.
[192]
Kahn, B.B.; Flier, J.S. Obesity and insulin resistance. J. Clin. Invest., 2000, 106, 473-481.
[193]
Goossens, G.H. The role of adipose tissue dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. Physiol. Behav., 2008, 94, 206-218.
[194]
Thomas, G.N.; Hartaigh, B.; Bosch, J.A.; Pilz, S.; Loerbroks, A.; Kleber, M.E.; Fischer, J.E.; Grammer, T.B.; Böhm, B.O.; März, W. Vitamin D levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. Diabetes Care, 2012, 35, 1158-1164.
[195]
Trayhurn, P. Hypoxia and adipose tissue function and dysfunction in obesity. Physiol. Rev., 2013, 93, 1-21.
[196]
Abdullah, A.; Peeters, A.; de Courten, M.; Stoelwinder, J. The magnitude of the association between overweight and obesity and the risk of diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2010, 89, 309-319.
[197]
Kahn, S.E.; Hull, R.L.; Utzschneider, K.M. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature, 2006, 444, 840-846.
[198]
Wortsman, J.; Matsuoka, L.Y.; Chen, T.C.; Lu, Z.; Holick, M.F. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2000, 72, 690-693.
[199]
Mutt, S.J.; Hypponen, E.; Saarnio, J.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Herzig, K.H. Vitamin D and adipose tissue-more than storage. Front. Physiol., 2014, 5, 228.
[200]
Esteghamati, A.; Ashraf, H.; Khalilzadeh, O.; Zandieh, A.; Nakhjavani, M.; Rashidi, A.; Haghazali, M.; Asgari, F. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007). Nutr. Metab. (Lond.), 2010, 7, 26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-7-26]
[201]
Srimani, S.; Saha, I.; Chaudhuri, D. Prevalence and association of metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency among postmenopausal women in a rural block of West Bengal, India. PLoS One, 2017, 12, 11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188331]
[202]
Vimaleswaran, K.S.; Berry, D.J.; Lu, C.; Tikkanen, E.; Pilz, S.; Hiraki, L.T.; Cooper, J.D.; Dastani, Z.; Li, R.; Houston, D.K.; Wood, A.R.; Michaëlsson, K.; Vandenput, L.; Zgaga, L.; Yerges-Armstrong, L.M.; McCarthy, M.I.; Dupuis, J.; Kaakinen, M.; Kleber, M.E.; Jameson, K.; Arden, N.; Raitakari, O.; Viikari, J.; Lohman, K.K.; Ferrucci, L.; Melhus, H.; Ingelsson, E.; Byberg, L.; Lind, L.; Lorentzon, M.; Salomaa, V.; Campbell, H.; Dunlop, M.; Mitchell, B.D.; Herzig, K.H.; Pouta, A.; Hartikainen, A.L. Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits-GIANT Consortium, Streeten, E.A.; Theodoratou, E.; Jula, A.; Wareham, N.J.; Ohlsson, C.; Frayling, T.M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Spector, T.D.; Richards, J.B.; Lehtimäki, T.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Kraft, P.; Cooper, C.; März, W.; Power, C.; Loos, R.J.; Wang, T.J.; Järvelin, M.R.; Whittaker, J.C.; Hingorani, A.D.; Hyppönen, E. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts. PLoS Med., 2013, 10, e1001383.
[203]
Knowler, W.C.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Fowler, S.E.; Hamman, R.F.; Lachin, J.M.; Walker, E.A.; Nathan, D.M. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N. Engl. J. Med., 2002, 346, 393-403.
[204]
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet, 2009, 374, 1677-1686.
[205]
Fall, T.; Hagg, S.; Magi, R.; Ploner, A.; Fischer, K.; Horikoshi, M.; Sarin, A.P.; Thorleifsson, G.; Ladenvall, C.; Kals, M.; Kuningas, M.; Draisma, H.H.; Ried, J.S.; van Zuydam, N.R.; Huikari, V.; Mangino, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Benyamin, B.; Nelson, C.P.; Rivera, N.V.; Kristiansson, K.; Shen, H.Y.; Havulinna, A.S.; Dehghan, A.; Donnelly, L.A.; Kaakinen, M.; Nuotio, M.L.; Robertson, N.; de Bruijn, R.F.; Ikram, M.A.; Amin, N.; Balmforth, A.J.; Braund, P.S.; Doney, A.S.; Döring, A.; Elliott, P.; Esko, T.; Franco, O.H.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Heikkilä, K.; Herzig, K.H.; Holm, H.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hyppönen, E.; Illig, T.; Isaacs, A.; Isomaa, B.; Karssen, L.C.; Kettunen, J.; Koenig, W.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, T.; Laitinen, J.; Lindgren, C.; Lyssenko, V.; Läärä, E.; Rayner, N.W.; Männistö, S.; Pouta, A.; Rathmann, W.; Rivadeneira, F.; Ruokonen, A.; Savolainen, M.J.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Small, K.S.; Smit, J.H.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Syvänen, A.C.; Taanila, A.; Tobin, M.D.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Willems, S.M.; Willemsen, G.; Witteman, J.; Perola, M.; Evans, A.; Ferrières, J.; Virtamo, J.; Kee, F.; Tregouet, D.A.; Arveiler, D.; Amouyel, P.; Ferrario, M.M.; Brambilla, P.; Hall, A.S.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.; Martin, N.G.; Montgomery, G.W.; Whitfield, J.B.; Jula, A. Knekt, P.; Oostra, B.; van Duijn, C.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Smith, G.D.; Kaprio, J.; Samani, N.J.; Gieger, C.; Peters, A.; Wichmann, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.; Tuomi, T.; Power, C.; Hammond, C.J.; Spector, T.D.; Lind, L.; Orho-Melander, M.; Palmer, C.N.; Morris, A.D.; Groop, L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Salomaa, V.; Vartiainen, E.; Hofman, A.; Ripatti, S.; Metspalu, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.; Pedersen, N.L.; McCarthy, M.I.; Ingelsson, E.; Prokopenko, I.; European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) consortium. The role of adiposity in cardiometabolic traits: a Mendelian randomization analysis. PLoS Med., 2013, 10, e1001474.
[206]
Frayling, T.M.; Timpson, N.J.; Weedon, M.N.; Zeggini, E.; Freathy, R.M.; Lindgren, C.M.; Perry, J.R.; Elliott, K.S.; Lango, H.; Rayner, N.W.; Shields, B.; Harries, L.W.; Barrett, J.C.; Ellard, S.; Groves, C.J.; Knight, B.; Patch, A.M.; Ness, A.R.; Ebrahim, S.; Lawlor, D.A.; Ring, S.M.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Sovio, U.; Bennett, A.J.; Melzer, D.; Ferrucci, L.; Loos, R.J.; Barroso, I.; Wareham, N.J.; Karpe, F.; Owen, K.R.; Cardon, L.R.; Walker, M.; Hitman, G.A.; Palmer, C.N.; Doney, A.S.; Morris, A.D.; Smith, G.D.; Hattersley, A.T.; McCarthy, M.I. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes childhood and adult obesity. Science, 2007, 316, 889-894.
[207]
Vitezova, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; Van Herpt, T.T.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C. Vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome in the elderly: The Rotterdam Study. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2015, 172, 327-335.
[208]
Ford, E.S.; Ajani, U.A.; McGuire, L.C.; Liu, S. Concentrations of serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among U.S adults. Diabetes Care, 2005, 28, 1228-1230.
[209]
Reis, J.P.; von Muhlen, D.; Miller, E.R., III Relation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels with metabolic syndrome among US adults. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2008, 159, 41-48.
[210]
Kabadi, S.M.; Lee, B.K.; Liu, L. Joint effects of obesity and vitamin D insufficiency on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: results from the NHANES 2001-2006. Diabetes Care, 2012, 35, 2048-2054.
[211]
Maki, K.C.; Rubin, M.R.; Wong, L.G.; McManus, J.F.; Jensen, C.D.; Marshall, J.W.; Lawless, A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome in men and women. J. Clin. Lipidol., 2009, 3, 289-296.
[212]
Hypponen, E.; Boucher, B.J.; Berry, D.J.; Power, C. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Diabetes, 2008, 57, 298-305.
[213]
Durmaz, Z.H.; Demir, A.D.; Ozkan, T.; Kilınc, C.; Gluckman, R.; Tiryaki, M. Does vitamin D deficiency lead to insulin resistance in obese individuals? Biomed. Res., 2017, 28, 7491-7497.
[215]
Garland, C.F.; Kim, J.J.; Mohr, S.B.; Gorham, E.D.; Grant, W.B.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Baggerly, L.; Hofflich, H.; Ramsdell, J.W.; Zeng, K.; Heaney, R.P. Meta-analysis of all-cause mortality according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am. J. Public Health, 2014, 104, e43-e50.
[216]
Schottker, B.; Jorde, R.; Peasey, A.; Thorand, B.; Jansen, E.H.; Groot, L.D.; Streppel, M.; Gardiner, J.; Ordóñez-Mena, J.M.; Perna, L.; Wilsgaard, T.; Rathmann, W.; Feskens, E.; Kampman, E.; Siganos, G.; Njølstad, I.; Mathiesen, E.B.; Kubínová, R.; Pająk, A.; Topor-Madry, R.; Tamosiunas, A.; Hughes, M.; Kee, F.; Bobak, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Boffetta, P.; Brenner, H. Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States. Vitamin D and mortality: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States. BMJ, 2014, 34, g3656.
[217]
Holick, M.F.; Binkley, N.C.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A.; Gordon, C.M.; Hanley, D.A.; Heaney, R.P.; Murad, M.H.; Weaver, C.M. Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2011, 96, 1911-1930.
[218]
Ekwaru, J.P.; Zwicker, J.D.; Holick, M.F.; Giovannucci, E.; Veugelers, P.J. The importance of body weight for the dose-response relationship of oral vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteers. PLoS One, 2014, 9, e111265.
[219]
Biancuzzo, R.M.; Young, A.; Bibuld, D.; Cai, M.H.; Winter, M.R.; Klein, E.K.; Ameri, A.; Reitz, R.; Salameh, W.; Chen, T.C.; Holick, M.F. Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) is as effective as an oral supplement in maintaining vitamin D status in adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2010, 91, 1621-1626.
[220]
Heaney, R.P.; Davies, K.M.; Chen, T.C.; Holick, M.F.; Barger-Lux, M.J. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, 77, 204-210.
[221]
Veugelers, P.J.; Ekwaru, J.P. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D. Nutrients, 2014, 6, 4472-4475.
[222]
Paarsch, H.J. Evaluating veugelers and ekwaru letter to nutrients. Paarsch Assoc. Econ. Stat. Consul, 2014, 5, 1-14.
[223]
Grober, U.; Spitz, J.; Reichrath, J.; Kisters, K.; Holick, M.F.; Vitamin, D. Update 2013: From rickets prophylaxis to general preventive health care. Dermatoendocrinol, 2013, 5, 331-347.
[224]
Rosen, C.J. Clinical practice. Vitamin D insufficiency. N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364, 248-254.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [139 - 153]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1871529X19666190114155302
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 49
HTML: 2