Efficacy and Safety of Nilutamide in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer who Underwent Orchiectomy: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

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Author(s): Muhammed Rashid, K Shamshavali, Manik Chhabra*.

Journal Name: Current Clinical Pharmacology

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Abstract:

Background:Prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death, among the death caused due to cancer. By 2030, the burden is expected an increase with 1.7 million new cases and 499,000 new deaths. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Nilutamide in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) patients who underwent orchiectomy.

Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Library. References from included studies and studies from clinicaltrials.gov were explored without language and date restrictions. We included only randomized controlled trials, comparing the safety and efficacy of Nilutamide in Metastatic Prostate Cancer (mPCa) patients who underwent orchiectomy with placebo. The outcomes of concerns were survival, the response of drug and safety were the concerned outcomes. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Two authors were independently involved in the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. Disagreements between the two reviewers were resolved by consulting a third reviewer.

Results: A total, five out of 244 studies were included in meta-analysis involving1637 participants. Nilutamide group showed improved response rate (RR=1.77, 95%CI 1.46-2.14, p<0.00001), disease progression (RR=0.59, 95%CI 0.47-0.73, p<0.00001), complete response (RR=2.13, 95%CI 1.40-3.23, p=0.003) and clinical benefit (RR=1.23, 95%CI 1.13-1.34, p<0.00001) when compared to placebo; however, stable disease favored the control group (RR=0.80, 95%CI 0.68-0.94, p=0.007). In addition, patients on Nilutamide showed prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival. Nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events reported in Nilutamide group.

Conclusion: Evidence suggests that patients with mPCa who underwent orchiectomy receiving Nilutamide showed significant improvement in progression-free survival and overall survival response rate and clinical benefits in comparison with the placebo group.

Keywords: Nilutamide, Metastatic Prostate Cancer, Anti-androgen, Orchiectomy, Safety, Efficacy

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1574884714666190112151202

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