Background: The most common solid malignancy of young men aged 20 to 34 years is testicular germ cell tumor. In addition, the incidence of these tumors has significatively increased throughout the last years. Testicular germ cell tumors are classified into seminoma and nonseminoma germ cell tumors, which take in yolk sac tumor, embryonal cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma. There are noteworthy differences about therapy and prognosis of seminomas and nonseminoma germ cell tumors, even though both share characteristics of the primordial germ cells.
Objectives: the study focused on different molecular mechanisms strongly involved in testicular germ cell line tumors underlying new strategies to threat this human neoplasia.
Methods: bibliographic data from peer-reviewed research, patent and clinical trial literature, around eigthy papers and patents have been included in this review.
Results: our study reveals that several biomarkers are usefully utilized to discriminate among different histotypes. Moreover, we found new patents reguarding testicular germ cell tumor treatments such as the expression of claudin 6, monoclonal antibody (Brentuximab Vedotin), immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with the FDA-approved drugs pembrolizumab and nivolumab or the oncolytic virus Pelareorep, the combination of selective inhibitors of Aurora kinase.
Conclusion: Finally, the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumor needs to be deeply understood so that it will improve data on stem cells, tumorigenesis and disease tumor management by more selective treatment.