This review article is an attempt to summarize the current state of knowledge of the impact of vanadium (V) on oxidative stress (OS) markers in vivo. It shows the results of our studies and studies conducted by other researchers on the influence of different V compounds on the level of selected reactive oxygen species (ROS)/free radicals (FRs), markers of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. It also presents the impact of ROS/peroxides on the activity of antioxidant enzymes modulated by V and illustrates the mechanisms of the inactivation thereof caused by this metal and reactive oxygen metabolites. It also focuses on the mechanisms of interaction of V with some non-enzymatic compounds of the antioxidative system. Furthermore, we review the routes of generation of oxygen-derived FRs and non-radical oxygen derivatives (in which V is involved) as well as the consequences of FR-mediated LPO (induced by this metal) together with the negative/positive effects of LPO products. A brief description of the localization and function of some antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, which are able to form complexes with V and play a crucial role in the metabolism of this element, is presented as well. The report also shows the OS historical background and OS markers (determined in animals under V treatment) on a timeline, collects data on interactions of V with one of the elements with antioxidant potential, and highlights the necessity and desirability of conducting studies of mutual interactions between V and antioxidant elements.
Keywords: Vanadium, oxidative stress markers, animal studies, magnesium, interactions.
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