Non-Invasive Ventilation in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Author(s): Cosei Valentin-Caius*, Borcea Corina-Ioana, Zaharie Ana-Maria, Mihaltan Florin-Dumitru, Deleanu Oana-Claudia.

Journal Name: Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

The benefit of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. However, there is increasingly more evidence of NIV efficiency, especially high-flow NIV. This review presents the old and the new evidence of NIV effectiveness in stable COPD, considering pathophysiological arguments for NIV in COPD. Guidelines, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and crossover studies included in review and metaanalysis based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been analyzed. The role of NIV in rehabilitation and in palliative care and the role of telemedicine in relation with NIV are still up for debate. Challenges in choosing the right device and the optimal mode of ventilation still exist. There are also discussions on the criteria for patient inclusion and on how to meet them. More studies are needed to determine the ideal candidate for chronic NIV and to explain all the benefits of using NIV.

Keywords: COPD, NIV, pulmonary rehabilitation, telemedicine, ventilation, chronic treatment.

[1]
Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agustí AG, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 187(4): 347-65.
[2]
Kohnlein T, Windisch W, Kohler D, et al. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for the treatment of severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med 2014; 2(9): 698-705.
[3]
Crockett AJ, Cranston JM, Moss JR, Alpers JH. A review of long-term oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med 2001; 95: 437-43.
[4]
McEvoy RD, Pierce RJ, Hillman D, et al. Nocturnal non-invasive nasal ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: A randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2009; 64: 561-6.
[5]
Global Strategy for the Diagnosis. Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Available from: http: //goldcopd.org (2018)
[6]
Pisani I, Comellini V, Nava S. Noninvasive ventilation versus oxygen therapy for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. Expert Rev Respir Med 2016; 10(7): 813-21.
[7]
Pastaka C, Kostikas K, Karetsi E, Tsolaki V, Antoniadou I, Gourgoulianis KI. Non-invasive ventilation in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients with exacerbation and a pH of 7.35 or higher. Eur J Intern Med 2007; 18(7): 524-30.
[8]
Crimi C, Noto A, Princi P, et al. Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation in COPD: An international survey of indications and practices. COPD 2016; 13: 483-90.
[9]
Dreher M, Storre JH, Schmoor C, et al. High-intensity versus low-intensity non-invasive ventilation in patients with stable hypercapnic COPD: a randomised crossover trial. Thorax 2010; 65: 303-8.
[10]
Windisch W, Vogel M, Sorichter S, et al. Normocapnia during nIPPV in chronic hypercapnic COPD reduces subsequent spontaneous PaCO2. Respir Med 2002; 96: 572-9.
[11]
Windisch W, Kostic S, Dreher M, et al. Outcome of patients with stable COPD receiving controlled noninvasive positive pressure ventilation aimed at a maximal reduction of Pa (CO2). Chest 2005; 128: 657-62.
[12]
Windisch W, Dreher M, Storre JH, et al. Nocturnal non-invasive positive pressure ventilation: Physiological effects on spontaneous breathing. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006; 150: 251-60.
[13]
Roberts CM, Lopez-Campos JL, Pozo-Rodriguez F, Hartl S. European COPD Audit team. European hospital adherence to GOLD recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] exacerbation admissions. Thorax 2013; 68(12): 1169-71.
[14]
Hajian B, De Backer J, Sneyers C, et al. Pathophysiological mechanism of long-term noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic patients with COPD using functional respiratory imaging. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017; 12: 2197-205.
[15]
Nickol AH, Nicholas H, Hopkinson NS, et al. Mechanisms of improvement of respiratory failure in patients with COPD treated with NIV. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2008; 3(3): 453-62.
[16]
Celli B, Lee H, Criner G, et al. Controlled trial of external negative pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic airflow obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 140(5): 1251-6.
[17]
Gigliotti F, Duranti R, Fabiani A, et al. Suppression of ventilatory muscle activity in healthy subjects and COPD patients with negative pressure ventilation. Chest 1991; 99: 1186-92.
[18]
Gigliotti F, Spinelli A, Duranti R, et al. Four-week negative pressure ventilation improves respiratory function in severe hypercapnic COPD patients. Chest 1994; 105: 87-94.
[19]
Goti P, Duranti R, Spinelli A, et al. Effects of the iron lung on respiratory function in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1995; 50: 427-32.
[20]
Gutierrez M, Beroiza T, Contreras G, et al. Weekly cuirass ventilation improves blood gases and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with chronic air-flow limitation and hypercarbia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 617-23.
[21]
Scano G, Gigliotti F, Duranti R, et al. Changes in ventilatory muscle function with negative pressure ventilation in patients with severe COPD. Chest 1990; 97: 322-7.
[22]
Shapiro SH, Ernst P, Gray-Donald K, et al. Effect of negative pressure ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet 1992; 340: 1425-9.
[23]
Zibrak JD, Hill NS, Federman EC, et al. Evaluation of intermittent long-term negative-pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 1515-8.
[24]
Casanova C, Celli BR, Tost L, et al. Long-term controlled trial of nocturnal nasal positive pressure ventilation in patients with severe COPD. Chest 2000; 118: 1582-90.
[25]
Clini E, Sturani C, Rossi A, et al. The Italian multicentre study on noninvasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 529-38.
[26]
Lin CC. Comparison between nocturnal nasal positive pressure ventilation combined with oxygen therapy and oxygen monotherapy in patients with severe COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154: 353-8.
[27]
Struik FM, Lacasse Y, Goldstein RS, et al. Nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in stable COPD: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. Respir Med 2014; 108: 329-37.
[28]
Strumpf DA, Millman RP, Carlisle CC, et al. Nocturnal positive-pressure ventilation via nasal mask in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144: 1234-9.
[29]
Gay PC, Patel AM, Viggiano RW, et al. Nocturnal nasal ventilation for treatment of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. Mayo Clin Proc 1991; 66: 695-703.
[30]
Meecham Jones DJ, Paul EA, Jones PW, et al. Nasal pressure support ventilation plus oxygen compared with oxygen therapy alone in hypercapnic COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152: 538-44.
[31]
Windisch W, Storre JH, Kohnlein T. Nocturnal non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for COPD. Expert Rev Respir Med 2015; 9: 295-308.
[32]
Dreher M, Ekkernkamp E, Walterspacher S, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in COPD: impact of inspiratory pressure levels on sleep quality. Chest 2011; 140: 939-45.
[33]
Schwarz SB, Magnet FS, Windisch W. Impact of home mechanical ventilation on sleep quality. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2017; 23: 500-5.
[34]
Duiverman ML. Noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: What is the evidence? ERJ Open Res 2018; 4: 00012-2018.
[35]
Rodriguez-Roisin R. Pulmonary gas exchange. In: Gibson GJ, Geddes DM, Costabel U, Sterk PJ, Corrin B, Eds. Respiratory Medicine. London: Elsevier Science 2003; pp. 130-46.
[36]
West JB, Wagner PD. Pulmonary gas exchange. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157(Suppl. 4): S82-7.
[37]
Moxham J. Respiratory failure: Definitions and causes. In: Wetherall DA, Ledingham JM, Warrell D, Eds. Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996; pp. 2901-6.
[38]
Roussos C, Bellemare F, Moxham J. Respiratory muscle fatigue. In: Roussos C, Ed. The Thorax. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker 1995; pp. 1405-62.
[39]
Philippe Gagnon, Jordan A Guenette Daniel Langer, Louis Laviolette, et al. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014; 9: 187-201.
[40]
Calverley PM, Brezinova V, Douglas NJ, Catterall JR, Flenley DC. The effect of oxygenation on sleep quality in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 126: 206-10.
[41]
Ozsancak A, D’Ambrosio C, Garpestad E, Schumaker G, Hill NS. Sleep and mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Clin 2008; 24(3): 517-31.
[42]
Gorini M, Misuri G, Corrado A, et al. Breathing pattern and carbon dioxide retention in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1996; 51: 677-83.
[43]
Otis AB, Fenn WO, Rahn H. Mechanics of breathing in man. J Appl Physiol 1950; 2(11): 592e607.
[44]
Martin AR, Katz IM, Jenöfi K, Caillibotte G, Brochard L, Texereau J. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing heliume oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air. BMC Pulm Med 2012; 12: 62.
[45]
Krieger BP. Hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure: less room to breathe Respiration 2009; 77: 344e50
[46]
Ambrosino N, Foglio K, Rubini F, Clini E, Nava S, Vitacca M. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Correlates for success. Thorax 1995; 50(7): 755-7.
[47]
Esteban A, Frutos F, Tobin MJ, et al. A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1995; 332(6): 345-50.
[48]
Avdeev SN, Tret’iakov AV, Grigor’iants RA, Kutsenko MA, Chuchalin AG. Study of the use of noninvasive ventilation of the lungs in acute respiratory insufficiency due exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Anesteziol Reanimatol 1998; (3): 45-51.
[49]
Barbé F, Togores B, Rubí M, Pons S, Maimó A, Agustí AG. Noninvasive ventilatory support does not facilitate recovery from acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 1996; 9(6): 1240-5.
[50]
Celikel T, Sungur M, Ceyhan B, Karakurt S. Comparison of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with standard medical therapy in hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. Chest 1998; 114(6): 1636-42.
[51]
Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. Early use of non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on general respiratory wards: A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000; 355(9219): 1931-5.
[52]
Lightowler JV, Wedzicha JA, Elliott MW, Ram FS. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2003; 326(7382): 185.
[53]
Elliott MW. Non-invasive ventilation in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A new gold standard? Intensive Care Med 2002; 28(12): 1691-4.
[54]
Conti G, Antonelli M, Navalesi P, et al. Noninvasive vs. conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after failure of medical treatment in the ward: A randomized trial. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28(12): 1701-7.
[55]
Squadrone E, Frigerio P, Fogliati C, et al. Noninvasive vs invasive ventilation in COPD patients with severe acute respiratory failure deemed to require ventilatory assistance. Intensive Care Med 2004; 30(7): 1303-10.
[56]
Evans TW. International Consensus Conferences in Intensive Care Medicine: non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Organised jointly by the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, and the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française, and approved by the ATS Board of Directors, December 2000. Intensive Care Med 2001; 27(1): 166-78.
[57]
Díaz O, Bégin P, Andresen M, et al. Physiological and clinical effects of diurnal noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD. Eur Respir J 2005; 26(6): 1016-23.
[58]
Scala R, Naldi M, Archinucci I, Coniglio G, Nava S. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and varying levels of consciousness. Chest 2005; 128(3): 1657-66.
[59]
Windisch W, Walterspacher S, Siemon K, Geiseler J, Sitter H. German Society for Pneumology. Guidelines for non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation for treatment of chronic respiratory failure. Published by the German Society for Pneumology. [DGP] Pneumologie 2010; 64(10): 640-52.
[60]
Anonymous . Clinical indications for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic respiratory failure due to restrictive lung disease, COPD, and nocturnal hypoventilation - a consensus conference report. Chest 1999; 116(2): 521-34. [ACCP].
[61]
French Society of Pneumology. 2014. GUIDE DU PARCOURS DE SOINS, Bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive. June 2014.
[62]
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease revised 2014. Global Inititative for Chronic Lung Disease, Inc. 2014.
[63]
Wijkstra PJ. Home based rehabilitation for patients with COPD. Is it equally effective as compared to outpatient rehabilitation? Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2003; 59(4): 335-7.
[64]
Kolodziej MA, Jensen L, Rowe B, Sin D. Systematic review of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in severe stable COPD Eur Respir J 2007; 30: 293e306
[65]
Gay PC, Hubmayr RD, Stroetz RW. Effectiveness of nocturnal nasal ventilation in stable, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during a 3-month controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1996; 71: 533-42.
[66]
Liao H, Pei W, Li H, et al. Efficacy of long-term noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD patients with respiratory failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017; 12: 2977-85.
[67]
Guodi Shen, et al. Review Article Effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of 16 randomized controlled trials Int J Clin Exp Med 2016; 9(2): 468-84.
[68]
Struik FM, Lacasse Y, Goldstein R, Kerstjens HM, Wijkstra PJ. Nocturnal non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (6): CD002878
[69]
Renston JP, DiMarco AF, Supinski GS. Respiratory muscle rest using nasal BiPAP ventilation in patients with stable severe COPD. Chest 1994; 105: 1053-60.
[70]
Garrod R, Mikelsons C, Paul EA, and Wedzicha JA. Randomized controlled trial of domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and physical training in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162: 1335-41.
[71]
Zhou L, Guan L, Wu W, et al. High-pressure versus low-pressure home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation with built-in software in patients with stable hypercapnic COPD: A pilot study. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 16728.
[72]
Diaz O, Begin P, Torrealba B, et al. Effects of noninvasive ventilation on lung hyperinflation in stable hypercapnic COPD. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 1490-8.
[73]
Chiang LL, Liu CY, Ho SC, et al. Efficacy of nocturnal nasal positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic patients with severe obstructive lung diseases. Chang Gung Med J 2004; 27: 98-106.
[74]
Sin DD, Wong E, Mayers I, et al. Effects of nocturnal noninvasive mechanical ventilation on heart rate variability of patients with advanced COPD. Chest 2007; 131: 156-63.
[75]
Xiang PC, Zhang X, Yang JN, et al. The efficacy and safety of long term home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2007; 30: 746-50.
[76]
Duiverman ML, Wempe JB, Bladder G, et al. Two-year home-based nocturnal noninvasive ventilation added to rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A randomized controlled trial. Respir Res 2011; 12: 112.
[77]
Funk GC, Breyer MK, Burghuber OC, et al. Long-term non-invasive ventilation in COPD after acute-on-chronic respiratory failure. Respir Med 2011; 105: 427-34.
[78]
Bhatt SP, Peterson MW, Wilson JS, and Durairaj L. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in subjects with stable COPD: A randomized trial. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2013; 8: 581-9.
[79]
Köhnlein T, Schönheit-Kenn U, Winterkamp S, Welte T, Kenn K. Noninvasive ventilation in pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD patients. Respir Med 2009; 103(9): 1329-36.
[80]
Nava S, Ambrosino N, Rubini F, et al. Effect of nasal pressure support ventilation and external PEEP on diaphragmatic activity in patients with severe stable COPD. Chest 1993; 103(1): 143-50.
[81]
Duiverman ML, Maagh P, Magnet FS, et al. Impact of High-Intensity-NIV on the heart in stable COPD: A randomised cross-over pilot study. Respir Res 2017; 18(1): 76.
[82]
Similowski T, Agustí A, MacNee W, Schönhofer B. The potential impact of anaemia of chronic disease in COPD. Eur Respir J 2006; 27(2): 390-6.
[83]
Ergan B, Ergün R. Impact of anemia on short-term survival in severe COPD exacerbations: A cohort study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2016; 11: 1775-83.
[84]
Spruit MA, Singh SJ, Garvey C, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Key concepts and advances in pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 188(8): e13-64.
[85]
McCarthy B, Casey D, Devane D, Murphy K, Murphy E, Lacasse Y. Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (2): CD003793
[86]
Sahin H, Naz I, Varol Y, Aksel N, Tuksavul F, Ozsoz A. Is a pulmonary rehabilitation program effective in COPD patients with chronic hypercapnic failure? Expert Rev Respir Med 2016; 10(5): 593-8.
[87]
Duiverman ML, Wempe JB, Bladder G, et al. Nocturnal non-invasive ventilation in addition to rehabilitation in hypercapnic patients with COPD. Thorax 2008; 63: 1052-7.
[88]
Franssen FME, Rochester CL. Comorbidities in patients with COPD and pulmonary rehabilitation: Do they matter? Eur Respir Rev 2014; 23: 131-41.
[89]
Hannink JD, van Hees HW, Dekhuijzen PN, van Helvoort HA, Heijdra YF. Non-invasive ventilation abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted COPD patients: A pilot study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2014; 24: 136-43.
[90]
Van t’Hul A, Gosselink R, Hollander P, Postmus P, Kwakkel G. Training with inspiratory pressure support in patients with severe COPD. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 65-72.
[91]
Costes F, Agresti A, Court-Fortune I, Roche F, Vergnon JM, Barthélémy JC. Noninvasive ventilation during exercise training improves exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 2003; 23: 307-13.
[92]
Bianchi L, Foglio K, Porta R, Baiardi R, Vitacca M, Ambrosino N. Lack of additional effect of adjunct of assisted ventilation to pulmonary rehabilitation in mild COPD patients. Respir Med 2002; 96: 359-67.
[93]
Ambrosino N. Assisted ventilation as an aid to exercise training: A mechanical doping? Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 3-5.
[94]
Blackstock FC, Lareau SC, Nici L, et al. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Education in Pulmonary Rehabilitation. An Official American Thoracic Society/Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand/Canadian Thoracic Society/British Thoracic Society Workshop Report. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018; 15(7): 769-84.
[95]
Chatwin M, Hawkins G, Panicchia L, et al. Randomised crossover trial of telemonitoring in chronic respiratory patients (TeleCRAFT trial). Thorax 2016; 71: 305-11.
[96]
Vitacca M, Bianchi L, Guerra A, et al. Tele-assistance in chronic respiratory failure patients: A randomised clinical trial. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 411-8.
[97]
Bertini S, Picariello M, Gorini M, et al. Telemonitoring in chronic ventilatory failure: a new model of survellaince, a pilot study. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2012; 77: 57-66.
[98]
Hazenberg A, Kerstjens HA, Prins SC, et al. Initiation of home mechanical ventilation at home: a randomized controlled trial of efficacy, feasibility and costs. Respir Med 2014; 108: 1387-95.
[99]
British Thoracic Society/Intensive Care Society Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure Guideline Development Group. BTS/ICS Guidelines for the Ventilatory Management of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory failure in Adults 2016.
[100]
McNicholas WT. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnoea-the overlap syndrome. J Thorac Dis 2016; 8(2): 236-42.
[101]
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Over 16s: Diagnosis and Management. London, National Clinical Guideline Centre, (NICE) In: 2010.
[102]
Ng JR, Aiyappan V, Mercer J, et al. Choosing an Oronasal Mask to Deliver Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Cause More Upper Airway Obstruction or Lead to Higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Requirements than a Nasal Mask in Some Patients: A Case Series. J Clin Sleep Med 2016; 12(9): 1227-32.
[103]
Weir M, Marchetti N, Czysz A, et al. High Intensity Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (HINPPV) for Stable Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2015; 2(4): 313-20.
[104]
Elliott MW, Mulvey DA, Moxham J, et al. Domiciliary nocturnal nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in COPD: mechanisms underlying changes in arterial blood gas tensions. Eur Respir J 1991; 4: 1044-52.
[105]
Noble PB, Pascoe CD, Lan B, et al. Airway smooth muscle in asthma: linking contraction and mechanotransduction to disease pathogenesis and remodelling. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2014; 29: 96-107.
[106]
Gosens R, Grainge C. Bronchoconstriction and airway biology: Potential impact and therapeutic opportunities. Chest 2015; 147: 798-803.
[107]
Grainge CL, Lau LC, Ward JA, et al. Effect of bronchoconstriction on airway remodeling in asthma. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 2006-15.
[108]
Rochester DF, Arora NS. Respiratory muscle failure. Med Clin North Am 1983; 67: 573-97.
[109]
Lukacsovits J, Carlucci A, Hill N, et al. Physiological changes during low- and high-intensity noninvasive ventilation. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 869-75.
[110]
Esquinas AM, Ucar ZZ, Kirakli C. Deventilation syndrome in severe COPD patients during long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation: Poor sleep pattern, hyperinflation, or silent chronic muscular fatigue? Sleep Breath 2014; 18: 225-6.
[111]
Adler D, Perrig S, Takahashi H, et al. Polysomnography in stable COPD under non-invasive ventilation to reduce patient-ventilator asynchrony and morning breathlessness. Sleep Breath 2012; 16: 1081-90.
[112]
Saumy Johnson. n, Ramesh Unnikrishnan. Noninvasive ventilation: Selection of patient, interfaces, initiation and weaning. Indian J Respir Care 2015; 4(2): 632-6.
[113]
British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Thorax 2002; 57: 192-211.
[114]
Ambrosino N, Nava S, Bertone P, Fracchia C, Rampulla C. Physiological evaluation of pressure support ventilation by nasal mask in patients with stable COPD. Chest 1992; 101: 385-91.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [120 - 132]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1573398X15666190104123054

Article Metrics

PDF: 13
HTML: 2
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1

Special-new-year-discount