Background: Determining the underlying etiology of dementia can be challenging. Computer-
based Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) have the potential to provide an objective comparison
of data and assist clinicians.
Objectives: To assess the diagnostic impact of a CDSS, the PredictND tool, for differential diagnosis of
dementia in memory clinics.
Methods: In this prospective multicenter study, we recruited 779 patients with either subjective cognitive
decline (n=252), mild cognitive impairment (n=219) or any type of dementia (n=274) and followed
them for minimum 12 months. Based on all available patient baseline data (demographics, neuropsychological
tests, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and MRI visual and computed ratings), the PredictND
tool provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of the data with a likelihood index for five diagnostic
groups; Alzheimer´s disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal
dementia and subjective cognitive decline. At baseline, a clinician defined an etiological diagnosis and
confidence in the diagnosis, first without and subsequently with the PredictND tool. The follow-up
diagnosis was used as the reference diagnosis.
Results: In total, 747 patients completed the follow-up visits (53% female, 69±10 years). The etiological
diagnosis changed in 13% of all cases when using the PredictND tool, but the diagnostic accuracy
did not change significantly. Confidence in the diagnosis, measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS,
0-100%) increased (ΔVAS=3.0%, p<0.0001), especially in correctly changed diagnoses (ΔVAS=7.2%,
Conclusion: Adding the PredictND tool to the diagnostic evaluation affected the diagnosis and increased
clinicians’ confidence in the diagnosis indicating that CDSSs could aid clinicians in the differential
diagnosis of dementia.