Objectives: Plantain pseudostem (PPS) wastes were biotransformed by applying simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using excised snail digestive juice and yeast slurry, and their oil properties compared with oils from commercially sold poultry feeds (PF). Patents suggesting inclusion of certain additives (US20090226558A1), spices (US5741508A), cysteamine (US4711897A), and dextrin (US6326051B1) in animal diets are regarded as expensive, thus, requiring cheaper and readily available sources of growth.
Methods: The analysis of their free radical scavenging potentials was carried by spectrophotometry, while fatty acids, volatile fatty acids, essentials oils, and phytosterols were determined by chromatography.
Results: After biotransformation, the melting point, specific gravity, acid, and peroxide values of the oils from SSF-PPS were significantly lower than those of PF, and showed elevations of C6:0-C18:1(trans-9) fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, γ-Linolenic, α-linolenic, behenic, and lignoceric acids. Camphene, β-phelandrene, eugenol, β-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, guaiol, tetradecanoic acid, and hexadecanoic acid levels decreased when PPS was biotransformed. Lactic (1575.75 mg/100g), acetic (1234.26 mg/100g), propionic (845.74 mg/100g), and n-butyric (68.56 mg/100g) acids were the predominant volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the SSF-PPS oils, which were higher than those found in the PF oil while PF oil contained higher campesterol, Stigmasterol, and 5-avesmasterol. The 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging potentials of PPS oil at high concentrations after biotransformation were equivalent to the standards and the PF oil.
Conclusion: This study has shown that biotransformation involving snail digestive juice and yeasts extensively improves the oil qualities of agricultural residues sufficient enough for poultry nutrition.