Major Depressive Disorder in Neuroimaging: What is Beyond Fronto-limbic Model?

Author(s): Chien-Han Lai*.

Journal Name: Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 1 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic illness with major manifestations in cognitive, social and occupational functions. The pathophysiological model is an intrigue issue for scientists to understand the origin of MDD.

Objective: In the beginning, the cortico-limbic-striato-pallidal-thalamic model has been proposed to link the clinical symptoms with the abnormalities in brain structure and function. However, the model is still evolving due to recent advances in the neuroimaging techniques, especially for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The recent findings in the fMRI studies in MDD showed the importance of fronto-limbic model for the modulations between cognitive function and primitive and negative emotions.

Method: This review will focus on the literature of fMRI studies in MDD with findings not in the fronto-limbic structures.

Results: Additional regions beyond the fronto-limbic model have been observed in some literature of MDD. Some regions in the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes have been shown with the alterations in gray matter, white matter and brain function. The importance of sensory detection, visuospatial function, language reception, motor response and emotional memories in these regions might provide the clues to understand the cognitive misinterpretations related to altered reception of outside information, behavioral responses related to biased cognition and emotional memories and clinical symptoms related to the significant alterations of interactions between different brain regions.

Conclusion: Future studies to establish a more comprehensive model for MDD will be warranted, especially for the model beyond the fronto-limbic structures.

Keywords: Depressive disorder, neuroimaging, fronto-limbic, fMRI, theory of mind, temporal region.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [37 - 43]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1573400515666181213155225

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