Human Toxocara Infection: Allergy and Immune Responses

Author(s): Mohammad Zibaei* , Zahra Shayesteh* , Najmeh Moradi , Saeed Bahadory .

Journal Name: Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan infection that occurs in various regions worldwide, more frequently in developing countries. Chronic infections with Toxocara species in humans are associated with the production of high levels of specific and non-specific antibodies of all isotypes and IgG subclasses and a cytokine response characterized by the production of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by Peripheral Blood Monocytes (PBMCs) and Leukocytes (PBLs) in whole blood cultures. Other Th2 effector responses are also prominent during infection, reflected by elevated numbers of peripheral blood eosinophils and increased expression of eosinophil degranulation products. The production of IFN-γ by PBMCs/PBLs stimulated with Toxocara-secreted proteins is not prominent in toxocariasis but IL-10 production may be increased in infected individuals. The relationship between Toxocara species with allergic reactions was reported in the recent century. Experimental and epidemiological investigations revealed that toxocariasis with this parasite led to the development of allergic symptoms, such as asthma. However, the findings are conflicting since in other investigations no association between these two immunopathologies has been reported.

Conclusion: The present review endeavours to summarize the data on Toxocara species and findings from studies on the relationship of toxocariasis with symptoms and signs of allergy. Furthermore, the mechanisms of immune responses and the factors associated between allergy and Toxocara infection are discussed.

Keywords: Allergy, asthma, immune response, toxocariasis, visceral larva migrans, leukocytes.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [82 - 90]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1871523018666181210115840
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