Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterised by
persistent high blood pressure and proteinuria, which is usually detected after 20 weeks
gestation. The pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of PE are
unclear; although oxidative stress (OS), abnormal placental angiogenesis and endothelial
dysfunction are reported to be contributing factors. Despite the synergistic roles OS and
placental angiogenesis play in the pathogenesis of PE, very few studies have attempted to
integrate both factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PE. OS also influences
placental angiogenesis through redox-sensitive transcription factors; hence understanding
how OS influences placental angiogenesis may elucidate potential therapeutic
targets for correcting abnormal placental angiogenesis and function in PE.
Objective: This article aims to present an insight into the role of OS and angiogenic
growth mediators (AGMs) in the pathogenesis of PE. It also provides evidence supporting
the fact that OS may directly or indirectly influence placental angiogenesis changes in PE
through the expression of a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive transcription
factors. Additionally, it covers mainly diagnostic biomarkers of OS and AGMs along
with existing biomarkers and treatment options currently available for PE.
Conclusion: Understanding the dynamics of preeclampsia will create a window of opportunity
for predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM).