Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality, being responsible for
more than 1.6 million deaths each year worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts
for approximately 85% of lung cancers; moreover, 10 to 15% of all NSCLCs harbor EGFR (epidermal
growth factor receptor) activating mutations, being suitable for EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
(TKI) molecular targeted therapy. However, EGFR+ NSCLCs gain acquired resistance to these
agents, representing one of the key challenges for modern precision oncology.
Objective: Therefore, this paper aims to provide an extensive state of the art review, alongside with
hints about future perspectives.
Conclusion: To date, in the light of the data from the FLAURA study, osimertinib represents the best
first-line option in NSCLC patients with EGFR activating mutations; EGFR-TKI plus chemotherapy
combination therapies, even though interesting, must still be considered investigational.