Monthly changes in the endometrial cycle indicate the presence of endometrial stem cells. In
recent years, various stem cells that exist in the endometrium have been identified and characterized.
Additionally, many studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) provide
an alternative source for regenerating the endometrium and repairing endometrial injury. This
review discusses the origin of endometrial stem cells, the characteristics and main biomarkers among
five types of putative endometrial stem cells, applications of endometrium-derived stem cells and menstrual
blood-derived stem cells, the association between BM-MSCs and endometrial stem cells, and
progress in repairing endometrial injury.
Keywords: Endometrial stem cells, label-retaining cells, side population cells, menstrual blood-derived stem cells, bone marrow-
derived stem cells, Asherman’s syndrome.
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