Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The scope and impact
of atrial fibrillation are wide; it can affect cardiac function, functional status, and quality of
life, and it confers a stroke risk. There are sex differences in atrial fibrillation across the scope of
the disease process, from epidemiology and causative mechanisms to management and outcomes.
The approach to management of atrial fibrillation differs between women and men, and there are
sex differences in response to medical therapy and catheter ablation. There are many gaps in our
knowledge of the gender differences in atrial fibrillation, and many opportunities for future research.
Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, gender differences, antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, stroke, future research.
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