Background: With the curiosity of exploring the underwater world, science has devised
various technologies and machines that can help them in performing activities like exploring, navigating
and plunging into the unknown world of oceanography. Underwater Robot or vehicle can be
claimed as an outcome of extensive research done by the scientists who aimed at discovering the
unknown mysterious world of ocean and how it can benefit humanity. Swarm robotics is an entirely
new section of robotics that has been developed based on swarm intelligence. Considering the fact,
swarm robotics being still in nuptial stage, researchers have provided immense contribution with an
aim to develop this technology. The objective of the paper is to present a comprehensive review
covering the various technical and conceptual aspects of underwater swarm robotic system.
Method: A systematic review on state-of-the-art has been performed where contributions of various
researchers was considered. The study emphasis on the concepts, technical background, architecture
and communication medium along with its applicability in various fields that also include various
issues and challenges faced while attaining them.
Results: The incorporation of swarm intelligence in underwater robotics provides a new angle altogether
into the working pattern of underwater robotic system.
Conclusion: The article is a systematic presentation of swarm robot technologies, their mechanisms,
conceived and designed communication medium with respect to adaptability of the vehicle to the
versatile nature of water. The paper delineates the various conceptual and technical details and its
beneficence to humanity.
Keywords: Applications, Architecture, Communication Medium, AUV Architecture, Swarm Intelligence, Swarm Robotics, Issues and Challenges, Underwater Swarms
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