Background Concepts: Zone Routing Protocol is evolving as an efficient hybrid routing
protocol with an extremely high potentiality owing to the integration of two radically different
schemes, proactive and reactive in such a way that a balance between control overhead and latency
is achieved. Its performance is impacted by various network conditions such as zone radius, network
size, mobility etc.
Objective: The research work described in this paper focuses on improving the performance of zone
routing protocol by reducing the amount of reactive traffic which is primarily responsible for
degraded network performance in case of large networks. The usage of route aggregation approach
helps in reducing the routing overhead and also help achieve performance optimization.
Method: The performance of proposed protocol is assessed under varying node size and mobility.
Further applied is the firefly algorithm which aims to achieve global optimization that is quite difficult
to achieve due to non-linearity of functions and multimodality of algorithms. For performance
evaluation a set of benchmark functions are being adopted like, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end
delay to validate the proposed approach.
Results: Simulation results depict better performance of leading edge firefly algorithm when compared
to zone routing protocol and route aggregation based zone routing protocol. The proposed
leading edge FRA-ZRP approach shows major improvement between ZRP and FRA-ZRP in Packet
Delivery Ratio. FRA-ZRP outperforms traditional ZRP and RA-ZRP even in terms of End to End
Delay by reducing the delay and gaining a substantial QOS improvement.
Conclusion: The achievement of proposed approach can be credited to the formation on zone head
and attainment of route from the head hence reduced queuing of data packets due to control packets,
by adopting FRA-ZRP approach. The routing optimized zone routing protocol using Route aggregation
approach and FRA augments the QoS, which is the most crucial parameter for routing performance
enhancement of MANET.
Keywords: Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP), Quality of Service (QOS), Route Aggregation (RA), Firefly algorithm (FRA), Packet Delivery Ratio(PDR), End-to-End Delay(E2D)
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