Biopolymers are ubiquitous in biomedical and healthcare application. Its nanocomposites have gained
more attention as antimicrobials, a drug carrier, sensors, disease diagnosis, tissue engineering, wound healing, and
cancer therapy. These biopolymer composites are efficient in holding, protecting and releasing bioactive drugs
such as pharmaceutics, nutraceuticals, enzymes, and probiotics. Several studies revealed a polymer-based drug
delivery system in cancer therapy and microbial treatments. However, this mini-review emphasized the source,
extraction, and characterizations of the biopolymers and their use in the fabrication of various drug or metals
based nanocomposites followed by its utilization as drug carrier or drug to treat the various diseases such as antimicrobial
infections and cancer.