Comparative Activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADARs) Isoforms for Correction of Genetic Code in Gene Therapy

Author(s): Md. Thoufic A. Azad , Umme Qulsum , Toshifumi Tsukahara* .

Journal Name: Current Gene Therapy

Volume 19 , Issue 1 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Introduction: Members of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes consist of double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and a deaminase domain (DD) that converts adenosine (A) into inosine (I), which acts as guanosine (G) during translation. Using the MS2 system, we engineered the DD of ADAR1 to direct it to a specific target. The aim of this work was to compare the deaminase activities of ADAR1-DD and various isoforms of ADAR2-DD.

Materials and Methods: We measured the binding affinity of the artificial enzyme system on a Biacore ™ X100. ADARs usually target dsRNA, so we designed a guide RNA complementary to the target RNA, and then fused the guide sequence to the MS2 stem-loop. A mutated amber (TAG) stop codon at 58 amino acid (TGG) of EGFP was targeted. After transfection of these three factors into HEK 293 cells, we observed fluorescence signals of various intensities.

Results: ADAR2-long without the Alu-cassette yielded a much higher fluorescence signal than ADAR2-long with the Alu-cassette. With another isoform, ADAR2-short, which is 81 bp shorter at the C-terminus, the fluorescence signal was undetectable. A single amino acid substitution of ADAR2-long-DD (E488Q) rendered the enzyme more active than the wild type. The results of fluorescence microscopy suggested that ADAR1-DD is more active than ADAR2-long-DD. Western blots and sequencing confirmed that ADAR1-DD was more active than any other DD.

Conclusion: This study provides information that should facilitate the rational use of ADAR variants for genetic restoration and treatment of genetic diseases.

Keywords: Site-directed RNA editing, gene therapy, ADAR-DD, dsRBD, TAG, MS2 RNA.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [31 - 39]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1566523218666181114122116
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