Background: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers with high mortality
rate. The effects of most therapies are limited. The Immune Checkpoint Blockade (ICB) improves the prognosis
in multiple malignancies. The application of immune checkpoint blockade to hepatocellular carcinoma
patients has recently started. Early phase clinical trials have shown some benefits to cancer patients.
Methods/Results: This review focuses on the immune system of liver and clinical trials of ICB. In particular, we
analyze the mechanisms by which immune checkpoint blockade therapies can be used for the treatment of hepatocellular
carcinoma patients, then examine the factors in cancer resistance to the therapies and finally suggest
possible combination therapies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Conclusion: ICB is a promising therapy for advanced HCC patients. Combined therapy exhibits a great potential
to enhance ICB response in these patients. The better understanding of the factors influencing the sensitivity
of ICB and more clinical trials will consolidate the efficiency and minimize the adverse effects of ICB.
Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, immune checkpoint blockade, immune response, combined therapy, tumor microenvironment, immunogenic
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport