Background: Cervical cancer is the second leading malignancy for women. In developing
countries, it is becoming a public health trouble in adult women. Persistent cervical infection
with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) may contribute to the development of cervical cancer.
The danger is in the fact that woman with HPV can go unnoticed for years. So, women with early
cervical cancer and pre-malignant neoplastic disease show no symptoms, until cancer becomes
invasive and grows into the nearby tissue. A large number of females die from the disease each year
due to late diagnosis and resistance to conventional treatment. In particular, in advanced tumor
stage, low response to chemotherapy results in poor prognosis and recurrence. Therefore, new
therapies and indicators are needed to overcome chemo-resistance as well as early diagnosis of
cancer. There is a continuous search for prognostic and predictive markers in order to help optimize
and personalize treatment for improvement in the outcome of cervical cancer.
Recent Findings: Non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the posttranscriptional
level are seeking the attention of scientists in this area. Certain microRNAs have
been located near cancer susceptibility loci that correlate tumorgenesis. Multiple profiling studies
have revealed a significant change in miRNA expression in cervical cancer patients. A number of
miRNAs have shown a consistent up-regulation or down regulation throughout the different stages
of cervical cancer.
Conclusion: Investigation of microRNAs involved in carcinogenesis and progression of cervical
cancer in tissue-specific manner is opening a window in early diagnosis and therapeutics.