Background: Mitochondria are the primary source of energy in most tissues. Mitochondrial
dysfunction results in cellular energy deficiency, triggers the production of reactive oxygen
species, and initiates various cell death and inflammatory pathways. Several cell-permeable peptides
(SS peptides) have been described that selectively target cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial
membrane and promote efficiency of the electron transport chain to produce more ATP.
Conclusion: In preclinical disease models, these peptides have been shown to repair damaged mitochondria
and promote cellular repair and restore function. By mitigating cell injury, these peptides
prevent inflammatory responses that can result in chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling.
This peptide technology platform represents a paradigm shift in targeting the fundamental cause of
cellular energy failure for age-related degenerative diseases.
Keywords: Aromatic-cationic peptides, mitochondria, cardiolipin, SS-31, elamipretide, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis,
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