Formation of new bone by osteoblasts is mediated via the activation of signaling pathways,
such as TGF-β, BMP, and Wnt. A number of transcription factors participate in the signaling cascades
that are tightly regulated by other regulatory factors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one such class of
regulatory factors that play an essential role in influencing chromatin architecture and regulate the expression
of the genes that play a role in osteoblast differentiation by the mechanism of deacetylation.
Four classes of HDACs have been identified namely, class I, class II A, class II B, class III and class IV.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small fragments of non-coding RNAs typically 19-25 nucleotides long that
target mRNAs to upregulate or downregulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. A number of
miRNAs that target HDACs in bone have been recently reported. Hence, in this review, we elaborate on
the various miRNAs that target the different classes of HDACs and impact of the same on osteogenesis.
Keywords: Bone, HDACs, MicroRNA, osteogenesis, runx2, deacetylation.
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