Introduation: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is considered as most common microvascular
complication of diabetes affected by one in three people who are suffered for diabetes.
Methods: Several pathophysiological mechanisms and adhesion molecules may play an etiologic role in
the development of diabetes and its complications. The adhesion molecules located on both leucocytes
and endothelial cells and considered as important molecules which can assessed the endothelial function.
The functions of adhesion molecules involved in the cellular margination, slow rolling and transmigration
of leukocytes. Hyperglycemia and its immediate biochemical sequelae or the low-grade inflammation
directly alter endothelial function or influence endothelial cell functioning indirectly by induce
oxidative stress and activates leukocytosis and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions by the increased
expression of adhesion molecules, growth factors, inflammatory factors, chemokines etc. and
Conclusion: This review summarized the several pathophysiological mechanisms and role of adhesion
molecules in disruption of homeostasis of vasculature by leukocytes in the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, leucocytes, integrins, selectins, immunoglobulin superfamily, cadherins.
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