Main Nutritional and Environmental Risk Factors in Children with Leukemia from a Public Hospital of the State of Guanajuato, Mexico

Author(s): Rebeca Monroy-Torres*, Daniela Ibarra-Miranda, Jaime Naves Sánchez, Angela Castillo-Chávez.

Journal Name: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Introduction: The prevalence of leukemia in children aged under 19 years continues to increase. Nutritional and environmental factors have been described as causes of their development, and maternal breastfeeding, birth weight, exposure to cow’s milk or to contaminants before 1 year of age, and smoking have been studied.

Objective: To analyze the main nutritional and environmental risk factors in children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in a public hospital in Guanajuato, Mexico.

Methods: Analytical and cross-sectional study on 30 children under 18 years of age, with a confirmed diagnosis of ALL in a public hospital in Guanajuato, Mexico. With the signed informed consent of the children’s parents, a questionnaire was applied that collected and in which nutritional risk factors (weeks of gestation and birth weight, breastfeeding, exposure to cow’s milk) and environmental factors (smoking and exposure to arsenic) were evaluated. The frequencies and Odds Ratios (OR) of the main nutritional and environmental risk factors were obtained.

Results: Mean age was 8 ± 4 years with 38 ± 1 weeks of gestation, with a birth weight of 3,200 g (range, 2,500-4,800 g). Fifty percent of the children consumed cow’s milk during their first year of life (40% before 6 months of age); 33.3% received maternal milk for ≤6 months and 63% of the parents had a positive smoking habit, with 66.6% of the participants living in cities with arsenic levels falling outside of the norm.

Conclusion: The main nutritional and environmental risk factors found were early complementary feeding, cow’s milk prior to 1 year of age, a duration of breastfeeding of fewer than 6 months, birth weight of >3,500 g, a positive smoking habit in the children’s parents, as well as exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Identification of these risk factors could constitute an input for integrating novel prevention alternatives and the nutritional management of leukemia.

Keywords: Leukemia, exclusive breastfeeding, arsenic, diet, smoking, malignant tumor.

[1]
Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Diagnóstico temprano del cáncer en la niñez. Washington, DC: OPS 2014. ISBN 978-92-75- 31846-1
[2]
Juárez-Ocaña S, González-Miranda G, Mejía-Aranguré JM, Rendón-Macías ME, Martínez-García MC, Fajardo-Martínez A. Frecuency of cancer in children residing in México City and treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (1996-2001). BMC Cancer 2004; 4(50): 1-9.
[4]
Kwan M, Buffler P, Abrams B, Kiley V. Breastfeeding and the risk of childhood leukemia: A meta-analysis. Public Health Rep 2004; 119: 521-34.
[5]
Symanski E, Lewis PG, Chen TY, Chan W, Lai D, Ma X. Air toxics and early childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia in Texas, a population based case control study. Environ Health 2016; 15: 70.
[6]
Secretaria de salud. Cancer infantil en México. 24 de Agosto de 2015. Available from:. https://www.gob.mx/salud/articulos/cancer-infantil-en-mexico
[7]
Health Secretary. Cancer in childhood and adolescence. Sector Health Program 2013-2018. Avalable from:. http://www.censia.salud.gob.mx/contenidos/descargas/transpare-ncia/especiales/PAE_Cancer.pdf
[8]
INEGI. Statistics on World Cancer Day >February 4 2016.
[9]
Fajardo-Gutiérrez A, Mejía-Aranguré M, Gómez-Delgado A, Mendoza-Sánchez H, Garduño-Espinosa J, Martínez-García MC. Epidemiology of malignant neoplasms in children resident of the Federal District (1982-1991). Bol Méd Hosp Infant México 1995; 52(9): 507-16.
[10]
Aguirre-Torres JA. Epidemiological panorama of the municipality of salamanca 2007. Available from:. http://www.guanajuato.gob. mx/ssg/observatorio/pdf/salamanca.pdf [Accessed on: August 2007]
[11]
The National Institute of Enviromental health Sciences. Available from:. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/impacts/children.cfm
[12]
Symanski E, Lewis PG, Chen TY, Chan W, Lai D, Ma X. Air toxics and early childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia in Texas, a population based case control study. Environ Health 2016; 15: 70.
[13]
Amitay E, Keinan Boker L. Breastfeeding and childhood leukemia incidence: A meta-analysis and systematic review. JAMA Pediatr 2015; 169(6)e151025
[14]
Tillett T. A liquid path to lung disease. Early arsenic exposure and effects in young adults. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(8): 486-7.
[15]
Löveborn HS, Kippler M, Lu Y, et al. Arsenic metabolism in children differs from that in adults 2016; 152(1): 29-39.
[16]
Jeffrey SC, Buffler P, Metayer C, Selvin S. Parental smoking and the risk of childhood leukemia. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163(12): 1091-100.
[17]
Karimi M, Haghighat M, Dialameh Z, Tahmasbi L, Parand S, Bardestani M. Breastfeeding as a protective effect against childhood leukemia and lymphoma. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016; 18(9)e29771
[18]
Bener AD, Galadari S. Longer breastfeeding and protection against childhood leukemia and lymphomas. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37: 23.
[19]
Lyngsie L, Rostgaard K, Hjalgrim H, et al. Birth weight and risk for childhood leukemia in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. J Nat Cancer Inst 96(20): 1549-55.
[20]
The national Institute of enviromental health Sciences. Available from:. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/supported/sep/2004/nu-trileu.cfm [Accessed on: October 2007]
[21]
Cantarella CD, Ragusa D, Giammanco M, et al. Folate deficiency as predisposing factor for childhood leukaemia: A review of the lit-erature. Genes Nutr 2017; 12: 14.
[22]
Johnson JK, Soler JT, Puumala ES, Ross AJ, Spector GL. Parental and infant characteristics and childhood leukemia in Minnesota BMC Pediatr 2008; 8: 7.
[23]
Spector L, Davies SM, Robison L, Hilden J, Roesler M, Ross J. Birth characteristics, maternal reproductive history, and the risk of infant leukemia: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(1): 128-34.
[24]
Reynolds P, Behren J, Elkin E. Birth characteristics and leukemia in young children. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 155(7): 603-13.
[25]
Hjalgrim D, Smith M, Webb E. Birth weight as a risk factor for childhood leukemia: A meta-analysis of 18 epidemiologic studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 19: 1.
[26]
Undurti N. Perinatal supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, immune response and adult diseases. Med Sci Monit 2004; 10(5): HY19-25.
[27]
Ferrís IT, García IC, López AA, Benedito M, Ortí AM, Ortega GA. Prevención pediátrica del cáncer: Factores dietéticos. Rev Esp Pediatr 2002; 58(6): 406-22.
[28]
Kwan ML, Block G, Selvin S, Month S, Buffler P. Food consumption by children and the risk of childhood acute leukemia. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160: 1098-107.
[29]
Addler T. The arsenic differential metabolism varies between children and adults. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113(6): A404.
[30]
Seventh report of the good neighbor environmental board to the president and the United States congress. Available at:. www.epa.gov/ocem/gneb.htm Accessed on: 30 October 2007
[31]
Monroy-Torres R, Macias AE, Gallaga JC, Santiago J. Arsenic in hair in Mexican children. Food Ecol Nutr 2009; 48(1): 59-75.
[32]
Bu-Tian J, Xiao-Ou S, Line MS, et al. Paternal cigarette smoking and the risk of childhood cancer among offspring of nonsmoking mothers. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 3.
[33]
Xiao-Ou S, Ross JA, Pendergrass WT, Reaman GH, Lampkin B, Robison L. Parental alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of infant leukemia: A children’s cancer group study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 88: 1.
[34]
Monroy Torres R, Espinoza Pérez A. Factors that intensify the toxicological risk in communities exposed to arsenic in water. Biotechnol Agric Sci 2018; 12(2): 148-57.
[35]
Ministry of the interior. Official journal of the federation. Official Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA-1996.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2019
Page: [207 - 214]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1573394714666181008151217
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 25
HTML: 3
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1