Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that commonly occurs in early
childhood. To date, the pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis is far from ideal, poses several
limitations, and constantly requires novel approaches. The theory that appropriate colonization of gut
bacteria during infancy influences the development of the immune system has prompted numerous
clinical trials that have evaluated the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation for the prevention and
treatment of atopic eczema in children. In addition, topical application of probiotics has been demonstrated
to improve the skin’s barrier function, which might contribute to reduce the severity of atopic
dermatitis. In this article, we review the literature and data regarding the use of probiotics, both by oral
administration and topical application, for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We also summarize the
knowledge on the potential mechanisms by which probiotics influence the gut and exert their skin effects.
Probiotic supplementation seems to be an attractive strategy to prevent and treat pediatric atopic
dermatitis. However, to enable the treatment to be fully effective, the period of supplementation should
be considered. Moreover, in future studies, a combination of probiotic supplementation and simultaneous
topical application of creams containing probiotics might also be considered.