Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of
malignant plasma B-lymphocytes and even as of today, it is an incurable disease. MM
accounts for approximately 10% of all hematologic cancers. Its molecular pathogenesis
is poorly understood, but the bone marrow microenvironment of tumor cells and genetic
factors have apparent roles in the process. Accurate diagnosis is important to properly
identify and stratify the disease, however, MM identification steps are time-consuming
and expensive. Thus, development of early molecular diagnostic methods is of high
importance in order to start proper therapies as early in the disease progression as
possible, given the nature of the poor survival rates/remission periods. Molecular
diagnostics via analytical omics represents one of the promising toolsets to speed up the
diagnostic process. In this paper, we critically review the utilization of state of the art,
high sensitivity analytical omics approaches (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics,
lipidomics and glycomics) in MM diagnostics at the molecular level.
Keywords: Multiple myeloma, molecular diagnostics, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, glycomics.
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